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* The size of ‘.go’ files
@ 2020-06-05 20:50 Ludovic Courtès
  2020-06-06  8:20 ` Mathieu Othacehe
  2020-06-08  8:07 ` Andy Wingo
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 7+ messages in thread
From: Ludovic Courtès @ 2020-06-05 20:50 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Guile Devel, Andy Wingo; +Cc: guix-devel

[-- Attachment #1: Type: text/plain, Size: 3725 bytes --]

Hello Guix!

On IRC there was a discussion about the size of ‘.go’ files.  The
discussion came from this observation:

--8<---------------cut here---------------start------------->8---
$ guix size $(readlink -f /run/current-system) | head -5
store item                                                       total    self
/gnu/store/4d0p06xgaw8lqa9db0d6728kkba8bizj-qemu-5.0.0            1651.6   745.2  18.8%
/gnu/store/abiva5ivq99x30r2s9pa3jj0pv9g16sv-guix-1.1.0-4.bdc801e   468.0   268.8   6.8%
/gnu/store/111zp1qyind7hsnvrm5830jhankmx4ls-linux-libre-5.4.43     243.6   243.6   6.2%
/gnu/store/skxkrhgn9z0fg9hmnbcyfdgzs5w4ryrr-llvm-9.0.1             199.9   128.5   3.2%
--8<---------------cut here---------------end--------------->8---

On disk, those .go files take quite a bit of space (I hear you Btrfs
people, don’t say it! :-)).

The code snippet below sorts the ELF sections of a .go file by size; for
‘python-xyz.go’, I get this:

--8<---------------cut here---------------start------------->8---
$13 = ((".rtl-text" . 3417108)
 (".guile.arities" . 1358536)
 (".data" . 586912)
 (".rodata" . 361599)
 (".symtab" . 117000)
 (".debug_line" . 97342)
 (".debug_info" . 54519)
 (".guile.frame-maps" . 47114)
 ("" . 1344)
 (".guile.arities.strtab" . 681)
 ("" . 232)
 (".shstrtab" . 229)
 (".dynamic" . 112)
 (".debug_str" . 87)
 (".strtab" . 75)
 (".debug_abbrev" . 65)
 (".guile.docstrs.strtab" . 1)
 ("" . 0)
 (".guile.procprops" . 0)
 (".guile.docstrs" . 0)
 (".debug_loc" . 0))
scheme@(guile-user)> (stat:size (stat go))
$14 = 6083445
--8<---------------cut here---------------end--------------->8---

More than half of those 6 MiB is code, and more than 1 MiB is
“.guile.arities” (info "(guile) Object File Format"), which is
surprisingly large; presumably the file only contains thunks (the
‘thunked’ fields of <package>).

Stripping the .debug_* sections (if that works) clearly wouldn’t help.

So I guess we could generate less code (reduce ‘.rtl-text’), perhaps by
tweaking ‘define-record-type*’, but I have little hope there.

We could also investigate where “.guile.arities” could be made denser,
or use fewer thunked fields in <package>.  Currently arity info takes
7x4 = 28 bytes per procedure as documented in (system vm assembler).
With an extra flag we could perhaps save 8 bytes for the simple case
where nopt = 0, nreq is small, and other flags are zero.

But anyway, currently there are (1358536 - 4) / 28 = 48K arity headers
in this file.  However, the file contains 970 packages, so we’re talking
about ~50 procedures per package, even though there are only 5 thunked
fields.  Weird!  Maybe I’m missing something.

But wait, that was with 3.0.2 and -O1.

With 3.0.3-to-be and -O1, python-xyz.go weighs in at 3.4 MiB instead of
5.9 MiB!  Here’s the section size distribution:

--8<---------------cut here---------------start------------->8---
$4 = ((".rtl-text" . 2101168)
 (".data" . 586392)
 (".rodata" . 360703)
 (".guile.arities" . 193106)
 (".symtab" . 117000)
 (".debug_line" . 76685)
 (".debug_info" . 53513)
 ("" . 1280)
 (".guile.arities.strtab" . 517)
 ("" . 232)
 (".shstrtab" . 211)
 (".dynamic" . 96)
 (".debug_str" . 87)
 (".strtab" . 75)
 (".debug_abbrev" . 56)
 (".guile.docstrs.strtab" . 1)
 ("" . 0)
 (".guile.procprops" . 0)
 (".guile.docstrs" . 0)
 (".debug_loc" . 0))
scheme@(guile-user)> (stat:size (stat go))
$5 = 3519323
--8<---------------cut here---------------end--------------->8---

“.rtl-text” is 38% smaller and “.guile.arities” is almost a tenth of
what it was.

Something’s going on here!  Thoughts?

Ludo’.


[-- Attachment #2: the code --]
[-- Type: text/plain, Size: 769 bytes --]

(use-modules (system vm elf)
             (rnrs io ports)
             (ice-9 match))

(define go
  (search-path %load-compiled-path "gnu/packages/python-xyz.go"))

(define elf
  (parse-elf (call-with-input-file go get-bytevector-all)))

(define (elf-section-name-as-string elf section)
  (let ((off (elf-section-offset
              (list-ref (elf-sections elf)
                        (elf-shstrndx elf)))))
    (string-table-ref (elf-bytes elf)
                      (+ off (elf-section-name section)))))

(sort (map (lambda (section)
             (cons (elf-section-name-as-string elf section)
                   (elf-section-size section)))
           (elf-sections elf))
      (match-lambda*
        (((name1 . size1) (name2 . size2))
         (> size1 size2))))

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 7+ messages in thread

* Re: The size of ‘.go’ files
  2020-06-05 20:50 The size of ‘.go’ files Ludovic Courtès
@ 2020-06-06  8:20 ` Mathieu Othacehe
  2020-06-06 19:21   ` Katherine Cox-Buday
  2020-06-08  8:07 ` Andy Wingo
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 7+ messages in thread
From: Mathieu Othacehe @ 2020-06-06  8:20 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ludovic Courtès; +Cc: guix-devel, Guile Devel


Hey Ludo,

> $ guix size $(readlink -f /run/current-system) | head -5
> store item                                                       total    self
> /gnu/store/4d0p06xgaw8lqa9db0d6728kkba8bizj-qemu-5.0.0            1651.6   745.2  18.8%
> /gnu/store/abiva5ivq99x30r2s9pa3jj0pv9g16sv-guix-1.1.0-4.bdc801e   468.0   268.8   6.8%
> /gnu/store/111zp1qyind7hsnvrm5830jhankmx4ls-linux-libre-5.4.43     243.6   243.6   6.2%
> /gnu/store/skxkrhgn9z0fg9hmnbcyfdgzs5w4ryrr-llvm-9.0.1             199.9   128.5   3.2%

When building a bare-bones Guix System disk-image, "Guix", "Guile" and
"Guile-static" represent 331M of .go files, see:

--8<---------------cut here---------------start------------->8---
find  /gnu/store/fvvpmrgnvr9jqxfn5m956xblisa8vzr4-guix-1.1.0-4.bdc801e
/gnu/store/ljcrz0d86r20phszvj6s1mdyjchz79ja-guile-static-stripped-3.0.2
/gnu/store/18hp7flyb3yid3yp49i6qcdq0sbi5l1n-guile-3.0.2-name "*.go"
-print0| du --files0-from=- -hc |tail -n1
--8<---------------cut here---------------end--------------->8---

If we compare it to the 943M of the "reduced" image I'm working on, it
makes around 1/3 of the final image.

> With 3.0.3-to-be and -O1, python-xyz.go weighs in at 3.4 MiB instead of
> 5.9 MiB!  Here’s the section size distribution:

Wooh, interesting!

Having a lighter disk-image isn't very important on desktop, but for the
embedded devices with small eMMC, any improvement would be really
welcome :)

Thanks,

Mathieu


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 7+ messages in thread

* Re: The size of ‘.go’ files
  2020-06-06  8:20 ` Mathieu Othacehe
@ 2020-06-06 19:21   ` Katherine Cox-Buday
  2020-06-07  9:07     ` Pierre Neidhardt
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 7+ messages in thread
From: Katherine Cox-Buday @ 2020-06-06 19:21 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Mathieu Othacehe; +Cc: guix-devel, Guile Devel

Mathieu Othacehe <othacehe@gnu.org> writes:

> Having a lighter disk-image isn't very important on desktop, but for the
> embedded devices with small eMMC, any improvement would be really
> welcome :)

I was recently discussing a Guix buildbox container image I put together
with a coworker, and one of the tremendous downsides was the size of the
image. I think smaller images are important all around! I'm looking
forward to seeing your work.

-- 
Katherine


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 7+ messages in thread

* Re: The size of ‘.go’ files
  2020-06-06 19:21   ` Katherine Cox-Buday
@ 2020-06-07  9:07     ` Pierre Neidhardt
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 7+ messages in thread
From: Pierre Neidhardt @ 2020-06-07  9:07 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Katherine Cox-Buday, Mathieu Othacehe; +Cc: guix-devel, Guile Devel

[-- Attachment #1: Type: text/plain, Size: 63 bytes --]

Same here! :)

-- 
Pierre Neidhardt
https://ambrevar.xyz/

[-- Attachment #2: signature.asc --]
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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 7+ messages in thread

* Re: The size of ‘.go’ files
  2020-06-05 20:50 The size of ‘.go’ files Ludovic Courtès
  2020-06-06  8:20 ` Mathieu Othacehe
@ 2020-06-08  8:07 ` Andy Wingo
  2020-06-09 16:09   ` Ludovic Courtès
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 7+ messages in thread
From: Andy Wingo @ 2020-06-08  8:07 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ludovic Courtès; +Cc: guix-devel, Guile Devel

Hi :)

A few points of information :)

On Fri 05 Jun 2020 22:50, Ludovic Courtès <ludo@gnu.org> writes:

> [Sorting] the ELF sections of a .go file by size; for ‘python-xyz.go’,
> I get this:
>
> $13 = ((".rtl-text" . 3417108)
>  (".guile.arities" . 1358536)
>  (".data" . 586912)
>  (".rodata" . 361599)
>  (".symtab" . 117000)
>  (".debug_line" . 97342)
>  (".debug_info" . 54519)
>  (".guile.frame-maps" . 47114)
>  ("" . 1344)
>  (".guile.arities.strtab" . 681)
>  ("" . 232)
>  (".shstrtab" . 229)
>  (".dynamic" . 112)
>  (".debug_str" . 87)
>  (".strtab" . 75)
>  (".debug_abbrev" . 65)
>  (".guile.docstrs.strtab" . 1)
>  ("" . 0)
>  (".guile.procprops" . 0)
>  (".guile.docstrs" . 0)
>  (".debug_loc" . 0))
>
> More than half of those 6 MiB is code, and more than 1 MiB is
> “.guile.arities” (info "(guile) Object File Format"), which is
> surprisingly large; presumably the file only contains thunks (the
> ‘thunked’ fields of <package>).

The guile.arities section starts with a sorted array of fixed-size
headers, then is followed by a sequence of ULEB128 references to local
variable names, including non-arguments.  The size is a bit perplexing,
I agree.  I can think of a number of ways to encode that section
differently but we'd need to understand a bit more about it and why the
baseline compiler is significantly different.

> Stripping the .debug_* sections (if that works) clearly wouldn’t help.

I believe that it should eventually be possible to strip guile.arities,
fwiw.

> So I guess we could generate less code (reduce ‘.rtl-text’), perhaps by
> tweaking ‘define-record-type*’, but I have little hope there.

Hehe :)  As you mention later:

> With 3.0.3-to-be and -O1, python-xyz.go weighs in at 3.4 MiB instead of
> 5.9 MiB!  Here’s the section size distribution:
>
> $4 = ((".rtl-text" . 2101168)
>  (".data" . 586392)
>  (".rodata" . 360703)
>  (".guile.arities" . 193106)
>  (".symtab" . 117000)
>  (".debug_line" . 76685)
>  (".debug_info" . 53513)
>  ("" . 1280)
>  (".guile.arities.strtab" . 517)
>  ("" . 232)
>  (".shstrtab" . 211)
>  (".dynamic" . 96)
>  (".debug_str" . 87)
>  (".strtab" . 75)
>  (".debug_abbrev" . 56)
>  (".guile.docstrs.strtab" . 1)
>  ("" . 0)
>  (".guile.procprops" . 0)
>  (".guile.docstrs" . 0)
>  (".debug_loc" . 0))
> scheme@(guile-user)> (stat:size (stat go))
> $5 = 3519323
>
> “.rtl-text” is 38% smaller and “.guile.arities” is almost a tenth of
> what it was.

The difference in the text are the new baseline intrinsics,
e.g. $vector-ref.  It goes in the opposite direction from instruction
explosion, which sought to (1) make the JIT compiler easier by
decomposing compound operations into their atomic parts, (2) make the
optimizer learn more information from flow rather than type-checking
side effects, and (3) allow the optimizer to eliminate / hoist / move
the component pieces of macro-operations.

However in the baseline compiler (2) and (3) aren't possible because
there is no optimizer on that level, and therefore the result is
actually a lose -- 10 micro-ops cost more than 1 macro-op because of
stack traffic overhead, which isn't currently mitigated by the JIT (1).

So instruction explosion is residual code explosion, which should pay
off in theory, but not for the baseline compiler.  So I added new
intrinsics for e.g. $vector-ref et al.  Thus the smaller code size.

I am not sure what causes the significantly different .guile.arities
size!

> Something’s going on here!  Thoughts?

There are more possibilities for making code size smaller, e.g. having
two equivalent encodings for bytecode, where one is smaller:

  https://webkit.org/blog/9329/a-new-bytecode-format-for-javascriptcore/

Or it could be that if we could do register allocation for a
target-dependent fixed set of registers in bytecode already, that could
decrease minimum instruction size, making more instructions fit into
single 32-bit words.  Would be nice if the JIT could rely on the
bytecode compiler to already have done register allocation, and reify
corresponding debug information.  Just a thought though, and not really
appropriate to the baseline compiler.

Cheers,

Andy


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 7+ messages in thread

* Re: The size of ‘.go’ files
  2020-06-08  8:07 ` Andy Wingo
@ 2020-06-09 16:09   ` Ludovic Courtès
  2020-06-24 12:11     ` Andy Wingo
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 7+ messages in thread
From: Ludovic Courtès @ 2020-06-09 16:09 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andy Wingo; +Cc: guix-devel, Guile Devel

Hello!

Andy Wingo <wingo@igalia.com> skribis:

> A few points of information :)

Much appreciated!

> The guile.arities section starts with a sorted array of fixed-size
> headers, then is followed by a sequence of ULEB128 references to local
> variable names, including non-arguments.  The size is a bit perplexing,
> I agree.  I can think of a number of ways to encode that section
> differently but we'd need to understand a bit more about it and why the
> baseline compiler is significantly different.

‘.guile.arities’ size should be proportional to the number of
procedures, right?  Additionally, if there are only/mostly thunks, the
string table for argument names should be small if not empty.  For N
thunks, I would expect roughly N 28-byte headers + NxM UL128, say 100
bytes per thunk; there’s 1000 of them, so we should be ~100,000 bytes.
This is roughly what we get observe with the baseline compiler.

>> “.rtl-text” is 38% smaller and “.guile.arities” is almost a tenth of
>> what it was.
>
> The difference in the text are the new baseline intrinsics,
> e.g. $vector-ref.  It goes in the opposite direction from instruction
> explosion, which sought to (1) make the JIT compiler easier by
> decomposing compound operations into their atomic parts, (2) make the
> optimizer learn more information from flow rather than type-checking
> side effects, and (3) allow the optimizer to eliminate / hoist / move
> the component pieces of macro-operations.
>
> However in the baseline compiler (2) and (3) aren't possible because
> there is no optimizer on that level, and therefore the result is
> actually a lose -- 10 micro-ops cost more than 1 macro-op because of
> stack traffic overhead, which isn't currently mitigated by the JIT (1).
>
> So instruction explosion is residual code explosion, which should pay
> off in theory, but not for the baseline compiler.  So I added new
> intrinsics for e.g. $vector-ref et al.  Thus the smaller code size.

Yes, that makes a lot of sense.  In particular, this file must use the
struct intrinsics a lot.

> There are more possibilities for making code size smaller, e.g. having
> two equivalent encodings for bytecode, where one is smaller:
>
>   https://webkit.org/blog/9329/a-new-bytecode-format-for-javascriptcore/

Like THUMB, but for bytecode.  :-)

I guess we could first analyze the generated code more closely and see
if there are opportunities there.

Thanks for the explanations!

Ludo’.


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 7+ messages in thread

* Re: The size of ‘.go’ files
  2020-06-09 16:09   ` Ludovic Courtès
@ 2020-06-24 12:11     ` Andy Wingo
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 7+ messages in thread
From: Andy Wingo @ 2020-06-24 12:11 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ludovic Courtès; +Cc: guix-devel, Guile Devel

Hi :)

On Tue 09 Jun 2020 18:09, Ludovic Courtès <ludo@gnu.org> writes:

> Andy Wingo <wingo@igalia.com> skribis:
>
>> The guile.arities section starts with a sorted array of fixed-size
>> headers, then is followed by a sequence of ULEB128 references to local
>> variable names, including non-arguments.  The size is a bit perplexing,
>> I agree.  I can think of a number of ways to encode that section
>> differently but we'd need to understand a bit more about it and why the
>> baseline compiler is significantly different.
>
> ‘.guile.arities’ size should be proportional to the number of
> procedures, right?  Additionally, if there are only/mostly thunks, the
> string table for argument names should be small if not empty.  For N
> thunks, I would expect roughly N 28-byte headers + NxM UL128, say 100
> bytes per thunk; there’s 1000 of them, so we should be ~100,000 bytes.
> This is roughly what we get observe with the baseline compiler.

Yes but that doesn't mean that you can directly compare baseline to CPS
-- CPS has many more intermediate names than baseline for non-argument
locals, all of which end up getting entries in the arities section.

Andy


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 7+ messages in thread

end of thread, other threads:[~2020-06-24 12:11 UTC | newest]

Thread overview: 7+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2020-06-05 20:50 The size of ‘.go’ files Ludovic Courtès
2020-06-06  8:20 ` Mathieu Othacehe
2020-06-06 19:21   ` Katherine Cox-Buday
2020-06-07  9:07     ` Pierre Neidhardt
2020-06-08  8:07 ` Andy Wingo
2020-06-09 16:09   ` Ludovic Courtès
2020-06-24 12:11     ` Andy Wingo

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