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;;; cperl-mode.el --- Perl code editing commands for Emacs  -*- lexical-binding:t -*-

;; Copyright (C) 1985-1987, 1991-2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

;; Author: Ilya Zakharevich
;;	Bob Olson
;;	Jonathan Rockway <jon@jrock.us>
;; Maintainer: emacs-devel@gnu.org
;; Keywords: languages, Perl
;; Package-Requires: ((emacs "26.1"))

;; This file is part of GNU Emacs.

;; GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
;; the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
;; (at your option) any later version.

;; GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
;; GNU General Public License for more details.

;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;; along with GNU Emacs.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

;; Corrections made by Ilya Zakharevich ilyaz@cpan.org

;;; Commentary:

;; This version of the file contains support for the syntax added by
;; the MooseX::Declare CPAN module, as well as Perl 5.10 keyword
;; support.

;; The latest version is available from
;; https://github.com/jrockway/cperl-mode
;;
;; (perhaps in the moosex-declare branch)

;; You can either fine-tune the bells and whistles of this mode or
;; bulk enable them by putting

;; (setq cperl-hairy t)

;; in your .emacs file.  (Emacs rulers do not consider it politically
;; correct to make whistles enabled by default.)

;; DO NOT FORGET to read micro-docs (available from `Perl' menu)   <<<<<<
;; or as help on variables `cperl-tips', `cperl-problems',         <<<<<<
;; `cperl-praise', `cperl-speed'.				   <<<<<<
;;
;; Or search for "Short extra-docs" further down in this file for
;; details on how to use `cperl-mode' instead of `perl-mode' and lots
;; of other details.

;; The mode information (on C-h m) provides some customization help.

;; Faces used now: three faces for first-class and second-class keywords
;; and control flow words, one for each: comments, string, labels,
;; functions definitions and packages, arrays, hashes, and variable
;; definitions.  If you do not see all these faces, your font-lock does
;; not define them, so you need to define them manually.

;; This mode supports font-lock, imenu and mode-compile.  In the
;; hairy version font-lock is on, but you should activate imenu
;; yourself (note that mode-compile is not standard yet).  Well, you
;; can use imenu from keyboard anyway (M-x imenu), but it is better
;; to bind it like that:

;; (define-key global-map [M-S-down-mouse-3] 'imenu)

;;; Code:
\f
;;; Compatibility with older versions (for publishing on ELPA)
;; The following helpers allow cperl-mode.el to work with older
;; versions of Emacs.
;;
;; Whenever the minimum version is bumped (see "Package-Requires"
;; above), please eliminate the corresponding compatibility-helpers.
;; Whenever you create a new compatibility-helper, please add it here.

;; Available in Emacs 27.1: time-convert
(defalias 'cperl--time-convert
  (if (fboundp 'time-convert) 'time-convert
    'encode-time))

;; Available in Emacs 28: format-prompt
(defalias 'cperl--format-prompt
  (if (fboundp 'format-prompt) 'format-prompt
    (lambda (msg default)
      (if default (format "%s (default %s): " msg default)
	(concat msg ": ")))))
\f
(eval-when-compile (require 'cl-lib))
(require 'facemenu)

(defvar msb-menu-cond)
(defvar gud-perldb-history)
(defvar vc-rcs-header)
(defvar vc-sccs-header)

(defun cperl-choose-color (&rest list)
  (let (answer)
    (while list
      (or answer
	  (if (or (x-color-defined-p (car list))
		  (null (cdr list)))
	      (setq answer (car list))))
      (setq list (cdr list)))
    answer))

(defgroup cperl nil
  "Major mode for editing Perl code."
  :prefix "cperl-"
  :group 'languages
  :version "20.3")

(defgroup cperl-indentation-details nil
  "Indentation."
  :prefix "cperl-"
  :group 'cperl)

(defgroup cperl-affected-by-hairy nil
  "Variables affected by `cperl-hairy'."
  :prefix "cperl-"
  :group 'cperl)

(defgroup cperl-autoinsert-details nil
  "Auto-insert tuneup."
  :prefix "cperl-"
  :group 'cperl)

(defgroup cperl-faces nil
  "Fontification colors."
  :link '(custom-group-link :tag "Font Lock Faces group" font-lock-faces)
  :prefix "cperl-"
  :group 'cperl)

(defgroup cperl-speed nil
  "Speed vs. validity tuneup."
  :prefix "cperl-"
  :group 'cperl)

(defgroup cperl-help-system nil
  "Help system tuneup."
  :prefix "cperl-"
  :group 'cperl)

\f
(defcustom cperl-extra-newline-before-brace nil
  "Non-nil means that if, elsif, while, until, else, for, foreach
and do constructs look like:

	if ()
	{
	}

instead of:

	if () {
	}"
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-autoinsert-details)

(defcustom cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline
  cperl-extra-newline-before-brace
  "Non-nil means the same as `cperl-extra-newline-before-brace', but
for constructs with multiline if/unless/while/until/for/foreach condition."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-autoinsert-details)

(defcustom cperl-indent-level 2
  "Indentation of CPerl statements with respect to containing block."
  :type 'integer
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

;; It is not unusual to put both things like perl-indent-level and
;; cperl-indent-level in the local variable section of a file.  If only
;; one of perl-mode and cperl-mode is in use, a warning will be issued
;; about the variable.  Autoload these here, so that no warning is
;; issued when using either perl-mode or cperl-mode.
;;;###autoload(put 'cperl-indent-level 'safe-local-variable 'integerp)
;;;###autoload(put 'cperl-brace-offset 'safe-local-variable 'integerp)
;;;###autoload(put 'cperl-continued-brace-offset 'safe-local-variable 'integerp)
;;;###autoload(put 'cperl-label-offset 'safe-local-variable 'integerp)
;;;###autoload(put 'cperl-continued-statement-offset 'safe-local-variable 'integerp)
;;;###autoload(put 'cperl-extra-newline-before-brace 'safe-local-variable 'booleanp)
;;;###autoload(put 'cperl-merge-trailing-else 'safe-local-variable 'booleanp)

(defcustom cperl-lineup-step nil
  "`cperl-lineup' will always lineup at multiple of this number.
If nil, the value of `cperl-indent-level' will be used."
  :type '(choice (const nil) integer)
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-brace-imaginary-offset 0
  "Imagined indentation of a Perl open brace that actually follows a statement.
An open brace following other text is treated as if it were this far
to the right of the start of its line."
  :type 'integer
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-brace-offset 0
  "Extra indentation for braces, compared with other text in same context."
  :type 'integer
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)
(defcustom cperl-label-offset -2
  "Offset of CPerl label lines relative to usual indentation."
  :type 'integer
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)
(defcustom cperl-min-label-indent 1
  "Minimal offset of CPerl label lines."
  :type 'integer
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)
(defcustom cperl-continued-statement-offset 2
  "Extra indent for lines not starting new statements."
  :type 'integer
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)
(defcustom cperl-continued-brace-offset 0
  "Extra indent for substatements that start with open-braces.
This is in addition to cperl-continued-statement-offset."
  :type 'integer
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)
(defcustom cperl-close-paren-offset -1
  "Extra indent for substatements that start with close-parenthesis."
  :type 'integer
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-indent-wrt-brace t
  "Non-nil means indent statements in if/etc block relative brace, not if/etc.
Versions 5.2 ... 5.20 behaved as if this were nil."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-indent-subs-specially t
  "If non-nil, indent subs inside other blocks relative to \"sub\" keyword.
Otherwise, indent them relative to statement that contains the declaration.
This applies to, for example, hash values."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-auto-newline nil
  "Non-nil means automatically newline before and after braces,
and after colons and semicolons, inserted in CPerl code.  The following
\\[cperl-electric-backspace] will remove the inserted whitespace.
Insertion after colons requires both this variable and
`cperl-auto-newline-after-colon' set."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-autoinsert-details)

(defcustom cperl-autoindent-on-semi nil
  "Non-nil means automatically indent after insertion of (semi)colon.
Active if `cperl-auto-newline' is false."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-autoinsert-details)

(defcustom cperl-auto-newline-after-colon nil
  "Non-nil means automatically newline even after colons.
Subject to `cperl-auto-newline' setting."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-autoinsert-details)

(defcustom cperl-tab-always-indent t
  "Non-nil means TAB in CPerl mode should always reindent the current line,
regardless of where in the line point is when the TAB command is used."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-font-lock nil
  "Non-nil (and non-null) means CPerl buffers will use `font-lock-mode'.
Can be overwritten by `cperl-hairy' if nil."
  :type '(choice (const null) boolean)
  :group 'cperl-affected-by-hairy)

(defcustom cperl-electric-lbrace-space nil
  "Non-nil (and non-null) means { after $ should be preceded by ` '.
Can be overwritten by `cperl-hairy' if nil."
  :type '(choice (const null) boolean)
  :group 'cperl-affected-by-hairy)

(defcustom cperl-electric-parens-string "({[]})<"
  "String of parentheses that should be electric in CPerl.
Closing ones are electric only if the region is highlighted."
  :type 'string
  :group 'cperl-affected-by-hairy)

(defcustom cperl-electric-parens nil
  "Non-nil (and non-null) means parentheses should be electric in CPerl.
Can be overwritten by `cperl-hairy' if nil."
  :type '(choice (const null) boolean)
  :group 'cperl-affected-by-hairy)

(defcustom cperl-electric-parens-mark window-system
  "Not-nil means that electric parens look for active mark.
Default is yes if there is visual feedback on mark."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-autoinsert-details)

(defcustom cperl-electric-linefeed nil
  "If true, LFD should be hairy in CPerl, otherwise C-c LFD is hairy.
In any case these two mean plain and hairy linefeeds together.
Can be overwritten by `cperl-hairy' if nil."
  :type '(choice (const null) boolean)
  :group 'cperl-affected-by-hairy)

(defcustom cperl-electric-keywords nil
  "Not-nil (and non-null) means keywords are electric in CPerl.
Can be overwritten by `cperl-hairy' if nil.

Uses `abbrev-mode' to do the expansion.  If you want to use your
own abbrevs in cperl-mode, but do not want keywords to be
electric, you must redefine `cperl-mode-abbrev-table': do
\\[edit-abbrevs], search for `cperl-mode-abbrev-table', and, in
that paragraph, delete the words that appear at the ends of lines and
that begin with \"cperl-electric\".
"
  :type '(choice (const null) boolean)
  :group 'cperl-affected-by-hairy)

(defcustom cperl-electric-backspace-untabify t
  "Not-nil means electric-backspace will untabify in CPerl."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-autoinsert-details)

(defcustom cperl-hairy nil
  "Not-nil means most of the bells and whistles are enabled in CPerl.
Affects: `cperl-font-lock', `cperl-electric-lbrace-space',
`cperl-electric-parens', `cperl-electric-linefeed', `cperl-electric-keywords',
`cperl-info-on-command-no-prompt', `cperl-clobber-lisp-bindings',
`cperl-lazy-help-time'."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-affected-by-hairy)

(defcustom cperl-comment-column 32
  "Column to put comments in CPerl (use \\[cperl-indent] to lineup with code)."
  :type 'integer
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-indent-comment-at-column-0 nil
  "Non-nil means that comment started at column 0 should be indentable."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-vc-sccs-header '("($sccs) = ('%W\ %' =~ /(\\d+(\\.\\d+)+)/) ;")
  "Special version of `vc-sccs-header' that is used in CPerl mode buffers."
  :type '(repeat string)
  :group 'cperl)

(defcustom cperl-vc-rcs-header '("($rcs) = (' $Id\ $ ' =~ /(\\d+(\\.\\d+)+)/);")
  "Special version of `vc-rcs-header' that is used in CPerl mode buffers."
  :type '(repeat string)
     :group 'cperl)

;; (defcustom cperl-clobber-mode-lists
;;   (not
;;    (and
;;     (boundp 'interpreter-mode-alist)
;;     (assoc "miniperl" interpreter-mode-alist)
;;     (assoc "\\.\\([pP][Llm]\\|al\\)$" auto-mode-alist)))
;;   "Whether to install us into `interpreter-' and `extension' mode lists."
;;   :type 'boolean
;;   :group 'cperl)

(defcustom cperl-info-on-command-no-prompt nil
  "Not-nil (and non-null) means not to prompt on C-h f.
The opposite behavior is always available if prefixed with C-c.
Can be overwritten by `cperl-hairy' if nil."
  :type '(choice (const null) boolean)
  :group 'cperl-affected-by-hairy)

(defcustom cperl-clobber-lisp-bindings nil
  "Not-nil (and non-null) means not overwrite C-h f.
The function is available on \\[cperl-info-on-command], \\[cperl-get-help].
Can be overwritten by `cperl-hairy' if nil."
  :type '(choice (const null) boolean)
  :group 'cperl-affected-by-hairy)

(defcustom cperl-lazy-help-time nil
  "Not-nil (and non-null) means to show lazy help after given idle time.
Can be overwritten by `cperl-hairy' to be 5 sec if nil."
  :type '(choice (const null) (const nil) integer)
  :group 'cperl-affected-by-hairy)

(defcustom cperl-pod-face 'font-lock-comment-face
  "Face for POD highlighting."
  :type 'face
  :group 'cperl-faces)

(defcustom cperl-pod-head-face 'font-lock-variable-name-face
  "Face for POD highlighting.
Font for POD headers."
  :type 'face
  :group 'cperl-faces)

(defcustom cperl-here-face 'font-lock-string-face
  "Face for here-docs highlighting."
  :type 'face
  :group 'cperl-faces)

(defcustom cperl-invalid-face 'underline
  "Face for highlighting trailing whitespace."
  :type 'face
  :version "21.1"
  :group 'cperl-faces)

(defcustom cperl-pod-here-fontify t
  "Not-nil after evaluation means to highlight POD and here-docs sections."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-faces)

(defcustom cperl-fontify-m-as-s t
  "Not-nil means highlight 1arg regular expressions operators same as 2arg."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-faces)

(defcustom cperl-highlight-variables-indiscriminately nil
  "Non-nil means perform additional highlighting on variables.
Currently only changes how scalar variables are highlighted.
Note that the variable is only read at initialization time for
the variable `cperl-font-lock-keywords-2', so changing it after you've
entered CPerl mode the first time will have no effect."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl)

(defcustom cperl-pod-here-scan t
  "Not-nil means look for POD and here-docs sections during startup.
You can always make lookup from menu or using \\[cperl-find-pods-heres]."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-speed)

(defcustom cperl-regexp-scan t
  "Not-nil means make marking of regular expression more thorough.
Effective only with `cperl-pod-here-scan'."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-speed)

(defcustom cperl-hook-after-change t
  "Not-nil means install hook to know which regions of buffer are changed.
May significantly speed up delayed fontification.  Changes take effect
after reload."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-speed)

(defcustom cperl-max-help-size 66
  "Non-nil means shrink-wrapping of info-buffer allowed up to these percents."
  :type '(choice integer (const nil))
  :group 'cperl-help-system)

(defcustom cperl-shrink-wrap-info-frame t
  "Non-nil means shrink-wrapping of info-buffer-frame allowed."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-help-system)

(defcustom cperl-info-page "perl"
  "Name of the Info manual containing perl docs.
Older version of this page was called `perl5', newer `perl'."
  :type 'string
  :group 'cperl-help-system)

(defcustom cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property t
  "Non-nil means CPerl sets up and uses `syntax-table' text property."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-speed)

(defcustom cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property-for-tags
  cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property
  "Non-nil means: set up and use `syntax-table' text property generating TAGS."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-speed)

(defcustom cperl-scan-files-regexp "\\.\\([pP][Llm]\\|xs\\)$"
  "Regexp to match files to scan when generating TAGS."
  :type 'regexp
  :group 'cperl)

(defcustom cperl-noscan-files-regexp
  "/\\(\\.\\.?\\|SCCS\\|RCS\\|CVS\\|blib\\)$"
  "Regexp to match files/dirs to skip when generating TAGS."
  :type 'regexp
  :group 'cperl)

(defcustom cperl-regexp-indent-step nil
  "Indentation used when beautifying regexps.
If nil, the value of `cperl-indent-level' will be used."
  :type '(choice integer (const nil))
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-indent-left-aligned-comments t
  "Non-nil means that the comment starting in leftmost column should indent."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-under-as-char nil
  "Non-nil means that the _ (underline) should be treated as word char."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl)
(make-obsolete-variable 'cperl-under-as-char 'superword-mode "24.4")

(defcustom cperl-extra-perl-args ""
  "Extra arguments to use when starting Perl.
Currently used with `cperl-check-syntax' only."
  :type 'string
  :group 'cperl)

(defcustom cperl-message-electric-keyword t
  "Non-nil means that the `cperl-electric-keyword' prints a help message."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-help-system)

(defcustom cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs 1
  "Amount of space to insert between `}' and `else' or `elsif'
in `cperl-indent-region'.  Set to nil to leave as is.  Values other
than 1 and nil will probably not work."
  :type '(choice (const nil) (const 1))
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-break-one-line-blocks-when-indent t
  "Non-nil means that one-line if/unless/while/until/for/foreach BLOCKs
need to be reformatted into multiline ones when indenting a region."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-fix-hanging-brace-when-indent t
  "Non-nil means that BLOCK-end `}' may be put on a separate line
when indenting a region.
Braces followed by else/elsif/while/until are excepted."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-merge-trailing-else t
  "Non-nil means that BLOCK-end `}' followed by else/elsif/continue
may be merged to be on the same line when indenting a region."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-indent-parens-as-block nil
  "Non-nil means that non-block ()-, {}- and []-groups are indented as blocks,
but for trailing \",\" inside the group, which won't increase indentation.
One should tune up `cperl-close-paren-offset' as well."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-indentation-details)

(defcustom cperl-syntaxify-by-font-lock t
  "Non-nil means that CPerl uses the `font-lock' routines for syntaxification."
  :type '(choice (const message) boolean)
  :group 'cperl-speed)

(defcustom cperl-syntaxify-unwind
  t
  "Non-nil means that CPerl unwinds to a start of a long construction
when syntaxifying a chunk of buffer."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-speed)

(defcustom cperl-syntaxify-for-menu
  t
  "Non-nil means that CPerl syntaxifies up to the point before showing menu.
This way enabling/disabling of menu items is more correct."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'cperl-speed)

(defcustom cperl-ps-print-face-properties
  '((font-lock-keyword-face		nil nil		bold shadow)
    (font-lock-variable-name-face	nil nil		bold)
    (font-lock-function-name-face	nil nil		bold italic box)
    (font-lock-constant-face		nil "LightGray"	bold)
    (cperl-array-face			nil "LightGray"	bold underline)
    (cperl-hash-face			nil "LightGray"	bold italic underline)
    (font-lock-comment-face		nil "LightGray"	italic)
    (font-lock-string-face		nil nil		italic underline)
    (cperl-nonoverridable-face		nil nil		italic underline)
    (font-lock-type-face		nil nil		underline)
    (font-lock-warning-face		nil "LightGray"	bold italic box)
    (underline				nil "LightGray"	strikeout))
  "List given as an argument to `ps-extend-face-list' in `cperl-ps-print'."
  :type '(repeat (cons symbol
		       (cons (choice (const nil) string)
			     (cons (choice (const nil) string)
				   (repeat symbol)))))
  :group 'cperl-faces)

(defvar cperl-dark-background
  (cperl-choose-color "navy" "os2blue" "darkgreen"))
(defvar cperl-dark-foreground
  (cperl-choose-color "orchid1" "orange"))

(defface cperl-nonoverridable-face
  `((((class grayscale) (background light))
     (:background "Gray90" :slant italic :underline t))
    (((class grayscale) (background dark))
     (:foreground "Gray80" :slant italic :underline t :weight bold))
    (((class color) (background light))
     (:foreground "chartreuse3"))
    (((class color) (background dark))
     (:foreground ,cperl-dark-foreground))
    (t (:weight bold :underline t)))
  "Font Lock mode face used non-overridable keywords and modifiers of regexps."
  :group 'cperl-faces)

(defface cperl-array-face
  `((((class grayscale) (background light))
     (:background "Gray90" :weight bold))
    (((class grayscale) (background dark))
     (:foreground "Gray80" :weight bold))
    (((class color) (background light))
     (:foreground "Blue" :background "lightyellow2" :weight bold))
    (((class color) (background dark))
     (:foreground "yellow" :background ,cperl-dark-background :weight bold))
    (t (:weight bold)))
  "Font Lock mode face used to highlight array names."
  :group 'cperl-faces)

(defface cperl-hash-face
  `((((class grayscale) (background light))
     (:background "Gray90" :weight bold :slant italic))
    (((class grayscale) (background dark))
     (:foreground "Gray80" :weight bold :slant italic))
    (((class color) (background light))
     (:foreground "Red" :background "lightyellow2" :weight bold :slant italic))
    (((class color) (background dark))
     (:foreground "Red" :background ,cperl-dark-background :weight bold :slant italic))
    (t (:weight bold :slant italic)))
  "Font Lock mode face used to highlight hash names."
  :group 'cperl-faces)

\f

;;; Short extra-docs.

(defvar cperl-tips 'please-ignore-this-line
  "Note that to enable Compile choices in the menu you need to install
mode-compile.el.

If your Emacs does not default to `cperl-mode' on Perl files, and you
want it to: put the following into your .emacs file:

  (defalias \\='perl-mode \\='cperl-mode)

Get perl5-info from
  $CPAN/doc/manual/info/perl5-old/perl5-info.tar.gz
Also, one can generate a newer documentation running `pod2texi' converter
  $CPAN/doc/manual/info/perl5/pod2texi-0.1.tar.gz

If you use imenu-go, run imenu on perl5-info buffer (you can do it
from Perl menu).  If many files are related, generate TAGS files from
Tools/Tags submenu in Perl menu.

If some class structure is too complicated, use Tools/Hierarchy-view
from Perl menu, or hierarchic view of imenu.  The second one uses the
current buffer only, the first one requires generation of TAGS from
Perl/Tools/Tags menu beforehand.

Run Perl/Tools/Insert-spaces-if-needed to fix your lazy typing.

Switch auto-help on/off with Perl/Tools/Auto-help.

Though CPerl mode should maintain the correct parsing of Perl even when
editing, sometimes it may be lost.  Fix this by

  \\[normal-mode]

In cases of more severe confusion sometimes it is helpful to do

  \\[load-library] cperl-mode RET
  \\[normal-mode]

Before reporting (non-)problems look in the problem section of online
micro-docs on what I know about CPerl problems.")

(defvar cperl-problems 'please-ignore-this-line
  "Description of problems in CPerl mode.
`fill-paragraph' on a comment may leave the point behind the
paragraph.  It also triggers a bug in some versions of Emacs (CPerl tries
to detect it and bulk out).")

(defvar cperl-problems-old-emaxen 'please-ignore-this-line
  "This used to contain a description of problems in CPerl mode
specific for very old Emacs versions.  This is no longer relevant
and has been removed.")
(make-obsolete-variable 'cperl-problems-old-emaxen nil "28.1")

(defvar cperl-praise 'please-ignore-this-line
  "Advantages of CPerl mode.

0) It uses the newest `syntax-table' property ;-);

1) It does 99% of Perl syntax correct.

When using `syntax-table' property for syntax assist hints, it should
handle 99.995% of lines correct - or somesuch.  It automatically
updates syntax assist hints when you edit your script.

2) It is generally believed to be \"the most user-friendly Emacs
package\" whatever it may mean (I doubt that the people who say similar
things tried _all_ the rest of Emacs ;-), but this was not a lonely
voice);

3) Everything is customizable, one-by-one or in a big sweep;

4) It has many easily-accessible \"tools\":
        a) Can run program, check syntax, start debugger;
        b) Can lineup vertically \"middles\" of rows, like `=' in
                a  = b;
                cc = d;
        c) Can insert spaces where this improves readability (in one
                interactive sweep over the buffer);
        d) Has support for imenu, including:
                1) Separate unordered list of \"interesting places\";
                2) Separate TOC of POD sections;
                3) Separate list of packages;
                4) Hierarchical view of methods in (sub)packages;
                5) and functions (by the full name - with package);
        e) Has an interface to INFO docs for Perl; The interface is
                very flexible, including shrink-wrapping of
                documentation buffer/frame;
        f) Has a builtin list of one-line explanations for perl constructs.
        g) Can show these explanations if you stay long enough at the
                corresponding place (or on demand);
        h) Has an enhanced fontification (using 3 or 4 additional faces
                comparing to font-lock - basically, different
                namespaces in Perl have different colors);
        i) Can construct TAGS basing on its knowledge of Perl syntax,
                the standard menu has 6 different way to generate
                TAGS (if \"by directory\", .xs files - with C-language
                bindings - are included in the scan);
        j) Can build a hierarchical view of classes (via imenu) basing
                on generated TAGS file;
        k) Has electric parentheses, electric newlines, uses Abbrev
                for electric logical constructs
                        while () {}
                with different styles of expansion (context sensitive
                to be not so bothering).  Electric parentheses behave
                \"as they should\" in a presence of a visible region.
        l) Changes msb.el \"on the fly\" to insert a group \"Perl files\";
        m) Can convert from
		if (A) { B }
	   to
		B if A;

        n) Highlights (by user-choice) either 3-delimiters constructs
	   (such as tr/a/b/), or regular expressions and `y/tr';
	o) Highlights trailing whitespace;
	p) Is able to manipulate Perl Regular Expressions to ease
	   conversion to a more readable form.
        q) Can ispell POD sections and HERE-DOCs.
	r) Understands comments and character classes inside regular
	   expressions; can find matching () and [] in a regular expression.
	s) Allows indentation of //x-style regular expressions;
	t) Highlights different symbols in regular expressions according
	   to their function; much less problems with backslashitis;
	u) Allows to find regular expressions which contain interpolated parts.

5) The indentation engine was very smart, but most of tricks may be
not needed anymore with the support for `syntax-table' property.  Has
progress indicator for indentation (with `imenu' loaded).

6) Indent-region improves inline-comments as well; also corrects
whitespace *inside* the conditional/loop constructs.

7) Fill-paragraph correctly handles multi-line comments;

8) Can switch to different indentation styles by one command, and restore
the settings present before the switch.

9) When doing indentation of control constructs, may correct
line-breaks/spacing between elements of the construct.

10) Uses a linear-time algorithm for indentation of regions.

11) Syntax-highlight, indentation, sexp-recognition inside regular expressions.
")

(defvar cperl-speed 'please-ignore-this-line
  "This is an incomplete compendium of what is available in other parts
of CPerl documentation.  (Please inform me if I skipped anything.)

There is a perception that CPerl is slower than alternatives.  This part
of documentation is designed to overcome this misconception.

*By default* CPerl tries to enable the most comfortable settings.
From most points of view, correctly working package is infinitely more
comfortable than a non-correctly working one, thus by default CPerl
prefers correctness over speed.  Below is the guide how to change
settings if your preferences are different.

A)  Speed of loading the file.  When loading file, CPerl may perform a
scan which indicates places which cannot be parsed by primitive Emacs
syntax-parsing routines, and marks them up so that either

    A1) CPerl may work around these deficiencies (for big chunks, mostly
        PODs and HERE-documents), or
    A2) CPerl will use improved syntax-handling which reads mark-up
        hints directly.

    The scan in case A2 is much more comprehensive, thus may be slower.

    User can disable syntax-engine-helping scan of A2 by setting
       `cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property'
    variable to nil (if it is set to t).

    One can disable the scan altogether (both A1 and A2) by setting
       `cperl-pod-here-scan'
    to nil.

B) Speed of editing operations.

    One can add a (minor) speedup to editing operations by setting
       `cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property'
    variable to nil (if it is set to t).  This will disable
    syntax-engine-helping scan, thus will make many more Perl
    constructs be wrongly recognized by CPerl, thus may lead to
    wrongly matched parentheses, wrong indentation, etc.

    One can unset `cperl-syntaxify-unwind'.  This might speed up editing
    of, say, long POD sections.")

(defvar cperl-tips-faces 'please-ignore-this-line
  "CPerl mode uses following faces for highlighting:

  `cperl-array-face'			Array names
  `cperl-hash-face'			Hash names
  `font-lock-comment-face'	Comments, PODs and whatever is considered
				syntactically to be not code
  `font-lock-constant-face'	HERE-doc delimiters, labels, delimiters of
				2-arg operators s/y/tr/ or of RExen,
  `font-lock-warning-face'	Special-cased m// and s//foo/,
  `font-lock-function-name-face' _ as a target of a file tests, file tests,
				subroutine names at the moment of definition
				(except those conflicting with Perl operators),
				package names (when recognized), format names
  `font-lock-keyword-face'	Control flow switch constructs, declarators
  `cperl-nonoverridable-face'	Non-overridable keywords, modifiers of RExen
  `font-lock-string-face'	Strings, qw() constructs, RExen, POD sections,
				literal parts and the terminator of formats
				and whatever is syntactically considered
				as string literals
  `font-lock-type-face'		Overridable keywords
  `font-lock-variable-name-face' Variable declarations, indirect array and
				hash names, POD headers/item names
  `cperl-invalid-face'		Trailing whitespace

Note that in several situations the highlighting tries to inform about
possible confusion, such as different colors for function names in
declarations depending on what they (do not) override, or special cases
m// and s/// which do not do what one would expect them to do.

Help with best setup of these faces for printout requested (for each of
the faces: please specify bold, italic, underline, shadow and box.)

In regular expressions (including character classes):
  `font-lock-string-face'	\"Normal\" stuff and non-0-length constructs
  `font-lock-constant-face':	Delimiters
  `font-lock-warning-face'	Special-cased m// and s//foo/,
				Mismatched closing delimiters, parens
				we couldn't match, misplaced quantifiers,
				unrecognized escape sequences
  `cperl-nonoverridable-face'	Modifiers, as gism in m/REx/gism
  `font-lock-type-face'		escape sequences with arguments (\\x \\23 \\p \\N)
				and others match-a-char escape sequences
  `font-lock-keyword-face'	Capturing parens, and |
  `font-lock-function-name-face' Special symbols: $ ^ . [ ] [^ ] (?{ }) (??{ })
				\"Range -\" in character classes
  `font-lock-builtin-face'	\"Remaining\" 0-length constructs, multipliers
				?+*{}, not-capturing parens, leading
				backslashes of escape sequences
  `font-lock-variable-name-face' Interpolated constructs, embedded code,
				POSIX classes (inside charclasses)
  `font-lock-comment-face'	Embedded comments

")

\f

;;; Portability stuff:

(defvar cperl-del-back-ch
  (car (append (where-is-internal 'delete-backward-char)
	       (where-is-internal 'backward-delete-char-untabify)))
  "Character generated by key bound to `delete-backward-char'.")

(and (vectorp cperl-del-back-ch) (= (length cperl-del-back-ch) 1)
     (setq cperl-del-back-ch (aref cperl-del-back-ch 0)))

(defun cperl-putback-char (c)		; Emacs 19
  (push c unread-command-events))       ; Avoid undefined warning

(defsubst cperl-put-do-not-fontify (from to &optional post)
  ;; If POST, do not do it with postponed fontification
  (if (and post cperl-syntaxify-by-font-lock)
      nil
    (put-text-property (max (point-min) (1- from))
                       to 'fontified t)))

(defcustom cperl-mode-hook nil
  "Hook run by CPerl mode."
  :type 'hook
  :group 'cperl)

(defvar cperl-syntax-state nil)
(defvar cperl-syntax-done-to nil)
\f
;; Make customization possible "in reverse"
(defsubst cperl-val (symbol &optional default hairy)
  (cond
   ((eq (symbol-value symbol) 'null) default)
   (cperl-hairy (or hairy t))
   (t (symbol-value symbol))))
\f

(defun cperl-make-indent (column &optional minimum keep)
  "Indent from point with tabs and spaces until COLUMN is reached.
MINIMUM is like in `indent-to', which see.
Unless KEEP, removes the old indentation."
  (or keep
      (delete-horizontal-space))
  (indent-to column minimum))

;; Probably it is too late to set these guys already, but it can help later:

;;(and cperl-clobber-mode-lists
;;(setq auto-mode-alist
;;      (append '(("\\.\\([pP][Llm]\\|al\\)$" . perl-mode))  auto-mode-alist ))
;;(and (boundp 'interpreter-mode-alist)
;;     (setq interpreter-mode-alist (append interpreter-mode-alist
;;					  '(("miniperl" . perl-mode))))))
(eval-when-compile
  (mapc #'require '(imenu easymenu etags timer man info)))

(define-abbrev-table 'cperl-mode-electric-keywords-abbrev-table
  (mapcar (lambda (x)
            (let ((name (car x))
                  (fun (cadr x)))
              (list name name fun :system t)))
          '(("if" cperl-electric-keyword)
            ("elsif" cperl-electric-keyword)
            ("while" cperl-electric-keyword)
            ("until" cperl-electric-keyword)
            ("unless" cperl-electric-keyword)
            ("else" cperl-electric-else)
            ("continue" cperl-electric-else)
            ("for" cperl-electric-keyword)
            ("foreach" cperl-electric-keyword)
            ("formy" cperl-electric-keyword)
            ("foreachmy" cperl-electric-keyword)
            ("do" cperl-electric-keyword)
            ("=pod" cperl-electric-pod)
            ("=begin" cperl-electric-pod t)
            ("=over" cperl-electric-pod)
            ("=head1" cperl-electric-pod)
            ("=head2" cperl-electric-pod)
            ("pod" cperl-electric-pod)
            ("over" cperl-electric-pod)
            ("head1" cperl-electric-pod)
            ("head2" cperl-electric-pod)))
  "Abbrev table for electric keywords.  Controlled by `cperl-electric-keywords'."
  :case-fixed t
  :enable-function (lambda () (cperl-val 'cperl-electric-keywords)))

(define-abbrev-table 'cperl-mode-abbrev-table ()
  "Abbrev table in use in CPerl mode buffers."
  :parents (list cperl-mode-electric-keywords-abbrev-table))

;; ;; TODO: Commented out as we don't know what it is used for.  If
;; ;;       there are no bug reports about this for Emacs 28.1, this
;; ;;       can probably be removed.  (Code search online reveals nothing.)
;; (when (boundp 'edit-var-mode-alist)
;;   ;; FIXME: What package uses this?
;;   (add-to-list 'edit-var-mode-alist '(perl-mode (regexp . "^cperl-"))))

(defvar cperl-mode-map
  (let ((map (make-sparse-keymap)))
    (define-key map "{" 'cperl-electric-lbrace)
    (define-key map "[" 'cperl-electric-paren)
    (define-key map "(" 'cperl-electric-paren)
    (define-key map "<" 'cperl-electric-paren)
    (define-key map "}" 'cperl-electric-brace)
    (define-key map "]" 'cperl-electric-rparen)
    (define-key map ")" 'cperl-electric-rparen)
    (define-key map ";" 'cperl-electric-semi)
    (define-key map ":" 'cperl-electric-terminator)
    (define-key map "\C-j" 'newline-and-indent)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-j" 'cperl-linefeed)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-t" 'cperl-invert-if-unless)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-a" 'cperl-toggle-auto-newline)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-k" 'cperl-toggle-abbrev)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-w" 'cperl-toggle-construct-fix)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-f" 'auto-fill-mode)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-e" 'cperl-toggle-electric)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-b" 'cperl-find-bad-style)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-p" 'cperl-pod-spell)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-d" 'cperl-here-doc-spell)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-n" 'cperl-narrow-to-here-doc)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-v" 'cperl-next-interpolated-REx)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-x" 'cperl-next-interpolated-REx-0)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-y" 'cperl-next-interpolated-REx-1)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-ha" 'cperl-toggle-autohelp)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-hp" 'cperl-perldoc)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-hP" 'cperl-perldoc-at-point)
    (define-key map "\e\C-q" 'cperl-indent-exp) ; Usually not bound
    (define-key map [(control meta ?|)] 'cperl-lineup)
    ;;(define-key map "\M-q" 'cperl-fill-paragraph)
    ;;(define-key map "\e;" 'cperl-indent-for-comment)
    (define-key map "\177" 'cperl-electric-backspace)
    (define-key map "\t" 'cperl-indent-command)
    ;; don't clobber the backspace binding:
    (define-key map [(control ?c) (control ?h) ?F] 'cperl-info-on-command)
    (if (cperl-val 'cperl-clobber-lisp-bindings)
        (progn
	  (define-key map [(control ?h) ?f]
	    ;;(concat (char-to-string help-char) "f") ; does not work
	    'cperl-info-on-command)
	  (define-key map [(control ?h) ?v]
	    ;;(concat (char-to-string help-char) "v") ; does not work
	    'cperl-get-help)
	  (define-key map [(control ?c) (control ?h) ?f]
	    ;;(concat (char-to-string help-char) "f") ; does not work
	    (key-binding "\C-hf"))
	  (define-key map [(control ?c) (control ?h) ?v]
	    ;;(concat (char-to-string help-char) "v") ; does not work
	    (key-binding "\C-hv")))
      (define-key map [(control ?c) (control ?h) ?f]
        'cperl-info-on-current-command)
      (define-key map [(control ?c) (control ?h) ?v]
	;;(concat (char-to-string help-char) "v") ; does not work
	'cperl-get-help))
    (substitute-key-definition
     'indent-sexp 'cperl-indent-exp
     map global-map)
    (substitute-key-definition
     'indent-region 'cperl-indent-region
     map global-map)
    (substitute-key-definition
     'indent-for-comment 'cperl-indent-for-comment
     map global-map)
    map)
  "Keymap used in CPerl mode.")

(defvar cperl-lazy-installed)
(defvar cperl-old-style nil)
(easy-menu-define cperl-menu cperl-mode-map
  "Menu for CPerl mode."
  '("Perl"
    ["Beginning of function" beginning-of-defun t]
    ["End of function" end-of-defun t]
    ["Mark function" mark-defun t]
    ["Indent expression" cperl-indent-exp t]
    ["Fill paragraph/comment" fill-paragraph t]
    "----"
    ["Line up a construction" cperl-lineup (use-region-p)]
    ["Invert if/unless/while etc" cperl-invert-if-unless t]
    ("Regexp"
     ["Beautify" cperl-beautify-regexp
      cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property]
     ["Beautify one level deep" (cperl-beautify-regexp 1)
      cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property]
     ["Beautify a group" cperl-beautify-level
      cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property]
     ["Beautify a group one level deep" (cperl-beautify-level 1)
      cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property]
     ["Contract a group" cperl-contract-level
      cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property]
     ["Contract groups" cperl-contract-levels
      cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property]
     "----"
     ["Find next interpolated" cperl-next-interpolated-REx
      (next-single-property-change (point-min) 'REx-interpolated)]
     ["Find next interpolated (no //o)"
      cperl-next-interpolated-REx-0
      (or (text-property-any (point-min) (point-max) 'REx-interpolated t)
          (text-property-any (point-min) (point-max) 'REx-interpolated 1))]
     ["Find next interpolated (neither //o nor whole-REx)"
      cperl-next-interpolated-REx-1
      (text-property-any (point-min) (point-max) 'REx-interpolated t)])
    ["Insert spaces if needed to fix style" cperl-find-bad-style t]
    ["Refresh \"hard\" constructions" cperl-find-pods-heres t]
    "----"
    ["Indent region" cperl-indent-region (use-region-p)]
    ["Comment region" cperl-comment-region (use-region-p)]
    ["Uncomment region" cperl-uncomment-region (use-region-p)]
    "----"
    ["Run" mode-compile (fboundp 'mode-compile)]
    ["Kill" mode-compile-kill (and (fboundp 'mode-compile-kill)
                                   (get-buffer "*compilation*"))]
    ["Next error" next-error (get-buffer "*compilation*")]
    ["Check syntax" cperl-check-syntax (fboundp 'mode-compile)]
    "----"
    ["Debugger" cperl-db t]
    "----"
    ("Tools"
     ["Imenu" imenu (fboundp 'imenu)]
     ["Imenu on Perl Info" cperl-imenu-on-info (featurep 'imenu)]
     "----"
     ["Ispell PODs" cperl-pod-spell
      ;; Better not to update syntaxification here:
      ;; debugging syntaxification can be broken by this???
      (or
       (get-text-property (point-min) 'in-pod)
       (< (progn
            (and cperl-syntaxify-for-menu
                 (cperl-update-syntaxification (point-max)))
            (next-single-property-change (point-min) 'in-pod nil (point-max)))
          (point-max)))]
     ["Ispell HERE-DOCs" cperl-here-doc-spell
      (< (progn
           (and cperl-syntaxify-for-menu
                (cperl-update-syntaxification (point-max)))
           (next-single-property-change (point-min) 'here-doc-group nil (point-max)))
         (point-max))]
     ["Narrow to this HERE-DOC" cperl-narrow-to-here-doc
      (eq 'here-doc  (progn
                       (and cperl-syntaxify-for-menu
                            (cperl-update-syntaxification (point)))
                       (get-text-property (point) 'syntax-type)))]
     ["Select this HERE-DOC or POD section"
      cperl-select-this-pod-or-here-doc
      (memq (progn
              (and cperl-syntaxify-for-menu
                   (cperl-update-syntaxification (point)))
              (get-text-property (point) 'syntax-type))
            '(here-doc pod))]
     "----"
     ["CPerl pretty print (experimental)" cperl-ps-print
      (fboundp 'ps-extend-face-list)]
     "----"
     ["Syntaxify region" cperl-find-pods-heres-region
      (use-region-p)]
     ["Profile syntaxification" cperl-time-fontification t]
     ["Debug errors in delayed fontification" cperl-emulate-lazy-lock t]
     ["Debug unwind for syntactic scan" cperl-toggle-set-debug-unwind t]
     ["Debug backtrace on syntactic scan (BEWARE!!!)"
      (cperl-toggle-set-debug-unwind nil t) t]
     "----"
     ["Class Hierarchy from TAGS" cperl-tags-hier-init t]
     ;;["Update classes" (cperl-tags-hier-init t) tags-table-list]
     ("Tags"
      ;; ["Create tags for current file" cperl-etags t]
      ;; ["Add tags for current file" (cperl-etags t) t]
      ;; ["Create tags for Perl files in directory" (cperl-etags nil t) t]
      ;; ["Add tags for Perl files in directory" (cperl-etags t t) t]
      ;; ["Create tags for Perl files in (sub)directories"
      ;;  (cperl-etags nil 'recursive) t]
      ;; ["Add tags for Perl files in (sub)directories"
      ;;  (cperl-etags t 'recursive) t])
      ;; ;;? cperl-write-tags (&optional file erase recurse dir inbuffer)
      ["Create tags for current file" (cperl-write-tags nil t) t]
      ["Add tags for current file" (cperl-write-tags) t]
      ["Create tags for Perl files in directory"
       (cperl-write-tags nil t nil t) t]
      ["Add tags for Perl files in directory"
       (cperl-write-tags nil nil nil t) t]
      ["Create tags for Perl files in (sub)directories"
       (cperl-write-tags nil t t t) t]
      ["Add tags for Perl files in (sub)directories"
       (cperl-write-tags nil nil t t) t]))
    ("Perl docs"
     ["Define word at point" imenu-go-find-at-position
      (fboundp 'imenu-go-find-at-position)]
     ["Help on function" cperl-info-on-command t]
     ["Help on function at point" cperl-info-on-current-command t]
     ["Help on symbol at point" cperl-get-help t]
     ["Perldoc" cperl-perldoc t]
     ["Perldoc on word at point" cperl-perldoc-at-point t]
     ["View manpage of POD in this file" cperl-build-manpage t]
     ["Auto-help on" cperl-lazy-install
      (not cperl-lazy-installed)]
     ["Auto-help off" cperl-lazy-unstall
      cperl-lazy-installed])
    ("Toggle..."
     ["Auto newline" cperl-toggle-auto-newline t]
     ["Electric parens" cperl-toggle-electric t]
     ["Electric keywords" cperl-toggle-abbrev t]
     ["Fix whitespace on indent" cperl-toggle-construct-fix t]
     ["Auto-help on Perl constructs" cperl-toggle-autohelp t]
     ["Auto fill" auto-fill-mode t])
    ("Indent styles..."
     ["CPerl" (cperl-set-style "CPerl") t]
     ["PBP" (cperl-set-style  "PBP") t]
     ["PerlStyle" (cperl-set-style "PerlStyle") t]
     ["GNU" (cperl-set-style "GNU") t]
     ["C++" (cperl-set-style "C++") t]
     ["K&R" (cperl-set-style "K&R") t]
     ["BSD" (cperl-set-style "BSD") t]
     ["Whitesmith" (cperl-set-style "Whitesmith") t]
     ["Memorize Current" (cperl-set-style "Current") t]
     ["Memorized" (cperl-set-style-back) cperl-old-style])
    ("Micro-docs"
     ["Tips" (describe-variable 'cperl-tips) t]
     ["Problems" (describe-variable 'cperl-problems) t]
     ["Speed" (describe-variable 'cperl-speed) t]
     ["Praise" (describe-variable 'cperl-praise) t]
     ["Faces" (describe-variable 'cperl-tips-faces) t]
     ["CPerl mode" (describe-function 'cperl-mode) t])))

(autoload 'c-macro-expand "cmacexp"
  "Display the result of expanding all C macros occurring in the region.
The expansion is entirely correct because it uses the C preprocessor."
  t)

\f
;;; Perl Grammar Components
;;
;; The following regular expressions are building blocks for a
;; minimalistic Perl grammar, to be used instead of individual (and
;; not always consistent) literal regular expressions.

(defconst cperl--basic-identifier-regexp
  (rx (sequence (or alpha "_") (* (or word "_"))))
  "A regular expression for the name of a \"basic\" Perl variable.
Neither namespace separators nor sigils are included.  As is,
this regular expression applies to labels,subroutine calls where
the ampersand sigil is not required, and names of subroutine
attributes.")

(defconst cperl--label-regexp
  (rx-to-string
   `(sequence
     symbol-start
     (regexp ,cperl--basic-identifier-regexp)
     (0+ space)
     ":"))
  "A regular expression for a Perl label.
By convention, labels are uppercase alphabetics, but this isn't
enforced.")

(defconst cperl--normal-identifier-regexp
  (rx-to-string
   `(or
     (sequence
      (1+ (sequence
           (opt (regexp ,cperl--basic-identifier-regexp))
           "::"))
      (opt (regexp ,cperl--basic-identifier-regexp)))
     (regexp ,cperl--basic-identifier-regexp)))
  "A regular expression for a Perl variable name with optional namespace.
Examples are `foo`, `Some::Module::VERSION`, and `::` (yes, that
is a legal variable name).")

(defconst cperl--special-identifier-regexp
  (rx-to-string
   `(or
     (1+ digit)                          ; $0, $1, $2, ...
     (sequence "^" (any "A-Z" "]^_?\\")) ; $^V
     (sequence "{" (0+ space)            ; ${^MATCH}
               "^" (any "A-Z" "]^_?\\")
               (0+ (any "A-Z" "_" digit))
               (0+ space) "}")
     (in "!\"$%&'()+,-./:;<=>?@\\]^_`|~")))   ; $., $|, $", ... but not $^ or ${
  "The list of Perl \"punctuation\" variables, as listed in perlvar.")

(defconst cperl--ws-regexp
  (rx-to-string
   '(or space "\n"))
  "Regular expression for a single whitespace in Perl.")

(defconst cperl--eol-comment-regexp
  (rx-to-string
   '(sequence "#" (0+ (not (in "\n"))) "\n"))
  "Regular expression for a single end-of-line comment in Perl")

(defconst cperl--ws-or-comment-regexp
  (rx-to-string
   `(1+
     (or
      (regexp ,cperl--ws-regexp)
      (regexp ,cperl--eol-comment-regexp))))
  "Regular expression for a sequence of whitespace and comments in Perl.")

(defconst cperl--ows-regexp
  (rx-to-string
   `(opt (regexp ,cperl--ws-or-comment-regexp)))
  "Regular expression for optional whitespaces or comments in Perl")

(defconst cperl--version-regexp
  (rx-to-string
   `(or
     (sequence (opt "v")
	       (>= 2 (sequence (1+ digit) "."))
	       (1+ digit)
	       (opt (sequence "_" (1+ word))))
     (sequence (1+ digit)
	       (opt (sequence "." (1+ digit)))
	       (opt (sequence "_" (1+ word))))))
  "A sequence for recommended version number schemes in Perl.")

(defconst cperl--package-regexp
  (rx-to-string
   `(sequence
     "package" ; FIXME: the "class" and "role" keywords need to be
               ; recognized soon...ish.
     (regexp ,cperl--ws-or-comment-regexp)
     (group (regexp ,cperl--normal-identifier-regexp))
     (opt
      (sequence
       (regexp ,cperl--ws-or-comment-regexp)
       (group (regexp ,cperl--version-regexp))))))
  "A regular expression for package NAME VERSION in Perl.
Contains two groups for the package name and version.")

(defconst cperl--package-for-imenu-regexp
  (rx-to-string
   `(sequence
     (regexp ,cperl--package-regexp)
     (regexp ,cperl--ows-regexp)
     (group (or ";" "{"))))
  "A regular expression to collect package names for `imenu`.
Catches \"package NAME;\", \"package NAME VERSION;\", \"package
NAME BLOCK\" and \"package NAME VERSION BLOCK.\" Contains three
groups: Two from `cperl--package-regexp` for the package name and
version, and a third to detect \"package BLOCK\" syntax.")

(defconst cperl--sub-name-regexp
  (rx-to-string
   `(sequence
     (optional (sequence (group (or "my" "state" "our"))
			 (regexp ,cperl--ws-or-comment-regexp)))
     "sub" ; FIXME: the "method" and maybe "fun" keywords need to be
           ; recognized soon...ish.
     (regexp ,cperl--ws-or-comment-regexp)
     (group (regexp ,cperl--normal-identifier-regexp))))
  "A regular expression to detect a subroutine start.
Contains two groups: One for to distinguish lexical from
\"normal\" subroutines and one for the subroutine name.")

(defconst cperl--pod-heading-regexp
  (rx-to-string
   `(sequence
     line-start "=head"
     (group (in "1-4"))
     (1+ (in " \t"))
     (group (1+ (not (in "\n"))))
     line-end)) ; that line-end seems to be redundant?
  "A regular expression to detect a POD heading.
Contains two groups: One for the heading level, and one for the
heading text.")

(defconst cperl--imenu-entries-regexp
  (rx-to-string
   `(or
     (regexp ,cperl--package-for-imenu-regexp) ; 1..3
     (regexp ,cperl--sub-name-regexp)	       ; 4..5
     (regexp ,cperl--pod-heading-regexp)))     ; 6..7
  "A regular expression to collect stuff that goes into the `imenu` index.
Covers packages, subroutines, and POD headings.")

\f
;; These two must be unwound, otherwise take exponential time
(defconst cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex "[ \t\n]*\\(#[^\n]*\n[ \t\n]*\\)*"
"Regular expression to match optional whitespace with interspersed comments.
Should contain exactly one group.")

;; This one is tricky to unwind; still very inefficient...
(defconst cperl-white-and-comment-rex "\\([ \t\n]\\|#[^\n]*\n\\)+"
"Regular expression to match whitespace with interspersed comments.
Should contain exactly one group.")


;; Is incorporated in `cperl-outline-regexp', `defun-prompt-regexp'.
;; Details of groups in this may be used in several functions; see comments
;; near mentioned above variable(s)...
;; sub($$):lvalue{}  sub:lvalue{} Both allowed...
(defsubst cperl-after-sub-regexp (named attr) ; 9 groups without attr...
  "Match the text after `sub' in a subroutine declaration.
If NAMED is nil, allows anonymous subroutines.  Matches up to the first \":\"
of attributes (if present), or end of the name or prototype (whatever is
the last)."
  (concat				; Assume n groups before this...
   "\\("				; n+1=name-group
     cperl-white-and-comment-rex	; n+2=pre-name
     "\\(::[a-zA-Z_0-9:']+\\|[a-zA-Z_'][a-zA-Z_0-9:']*\\)" ; n+3=name
   "\\)"				; END n+1=name-group
   (if named "" "?")
   "\\("				; n+4=proto-group
     cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex	; n+5=pre-proto
     "\\(([^()]*)\\)"			; n+6=prototype
   "\\)?"				; END n+4=proto-group
   "\\("				; n+7=attr-group
     cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex	; n+8=pre-attr
     "\\("				; n+9=start-attr
        ":"
	(if attr (concat
		  "\\("
		     cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex ; whitespace-comments
		     "\\(\\sw\\|_\\)+"	; attr-name
		     ;; attr-arg (1 level of internal parens allowed!)
		     "\\((\\(\\\\.\\|[^\\()]\\|([^\\()]*)\\)*)\\)?"
		     "\\("		; optional : (XXX allows trailing???)
		        cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex ; whitespace-comments
		     ":\\)?"
		  "\\)+")
	  "[^:]")
     "\\)"
   "\\)?"				; END n+6=proto-group
   ))

;; Tired of editing this in 8 places every time I remember that there
;; is another method-defining keyword
(defvar cperl-sub-keywords
  '("sub"))

(defvar cperl-sub-regexp (regexp-opt cperl-sub-keywords))

(defun cperl-char-ends-sub-keyword-p (char)
  "Return t if CHAR is the last character of a perl sub keyword."
  (cl-loop for keyword in cperl-sub-keywords
           when (eq char (aref keyword (1- (length keyword))))
           return t))

;; Details of groups in this are used in `cperl-imenu--create-perl-index'
;;  and `cperl-outline-level'.
;; Was: 2=sub|package; now 2=package-group, 5=package-name 8=sub-name (+3)
(defvar cperl-imenu--function-name-regexp-perl
  (concat
   "^\\("				; 1 = all
       "\\([ \t]*package"		; 2 = package-group
          "\\("				; 3 = package-name-group
	    cperl-white-and-comment-rex ; 4 = pre-package-name
	       "\\([a-zA-Z_0-9:']+\\)\\)?\\)" ; 5 = package-name
       "\\|"
          "[ \t]*"
          cperl-sub-regexp
	  (cperl-after-sub-regexp 'named nil) ; 8=name 11=proto 14=attr-start
	  cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex	; 15=pre-block
   "\\|"
     "=head\\([1-4]\\)[ \t]+"		; 16=level
     "\\([^\n]+\\)$"			; 17=text
   "\\)"))

(defvar cperl-outline-regexp
  (concat cperl-imenu--function-name-regexp-perl "\\|" "\\`"))

(defvar cperl-mode-syntax-table nil
  "Syntax table in use in CPerl mode buffers.")

(defvar cperl-string-syntax-table nil
  "Syntax table in use in CPerl mode string-like chunks.")

(defsubst cperl-1- (p)
  (max (point-min) (1- p)))

(defsubst cperl-1+ (p)
  (min (point-max) (1+ p)))

(if cperl-mode-syntax-table
    ()
  (setq cperl-mode-syntax-table (make-syntax-table))
  (modify-syntax-entry ?\\ "\\" cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?/ "." cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?* "." cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?+ "." cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?- "." cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?= "." cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?% "." cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?< "." cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?> "." cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?& "." cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?$ "\\" cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?\n ">" cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?# "<" cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?' "\"" cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?` "\"" cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (if cperl-under-as-char
      (modify-syntax-entry ?_ "w" cperl-mode-syntax-table))
  (modify-syntax-entry ?: "_" cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?| "." cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (setq cperl-string-syntax-table (copy-syntax-table cperl-mode-syntax-table))
  (modify-syntax-entry ?$ "." cperl-string-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?\{ "." cperl-string-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?\} "." cperl-string-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?\" "." cperl-string-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?' "." cperl-string-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?` "." cperl-string-syntax-table)
  (modify-syntax-entry ?# "." cperl-string-syntax-table)) ; (?# comment )


\f
(defvar cperl-faces-init nil)
;; Fix for msb.el
(defvar cperl-msb-fixed nil)
(defvar cperl-use-major-mode 'cperl-mode)
(defvar cperl-font-lock-multiline-start nil)
(defvar cperl-font-lock-multiline nil)
(defvar cperl-font-locking nil)

(defvar cperl-compilation-error-regexp-list
  ;; This look like a paranoiac regexp: could anybody find a better one? (which WORKS).
  '("^[^\n]* \\(file\\|at\\) \\([^ \t\n]+\\) [^\n]*line \\([0-9]+\\)[\\., \n]"
    2 3)
  "List that specifies how to match errors in Perl output.")

(defvar cperl-compilation-error-regexp-alist)
(make-obsolete-variable 'cperl-compilation-error-regexp-alist
                        'cperl-compilation-error-regexp-list "28.1")

(defvar compilation-error-regexp-alist)

;;;###autoload
(define-derived-mode cperl-mode prog-mode "CPerl"
  "Major mode for editing Perl code.
Expression and list commands understand all C brackets.
Tab indents for Perl code.
Paragraphs are separated by blank lines only.
Delete converts tabs to spaces as it moves back.

Various characters in Perl almost always come in pairs: {}, (), [],
sometimes <>.  When the user types the first, she gets the second as
well, with optional special formatting done on {}.  (Disabled by
default.)  You can always quote (with \\[quoted-insert]) the left
\"paren\" to avoid the expansion.  The processing of < is special,
since most the time you mean \"less\".  CPerl mode tries to guess
whether you want to type pair <>, and inserts is if it
appropriate.  You can set `cperl-electric-parens-string' to the string that
contains the parens from the above list you want to be electrical.
Electricity of parens is controlled by `cperl-electric-parens'.
You may also set `cperl-electric-parens-mark' to have electric parens
look for active mark and \"embrace\" a region if possible.'

CPerl mode provides expansion of the Perl control constructs:

   if, else, elsif, unless, while, until, continue, do,
   for, foreach, formy and foreachmy.

and POD directives (Disabled by default, see `cperl-electric-keywords'.)

The user types the keyword immediately followed by a space, which
causes the construct to be expanded, and the point is positioned where
she is most likely to want to be.  E.g., when the user types a space
following \"if\" the following appears in the buffer: if () { or if ()
} { } and the cursor is between the parentheses.  The user can then
type some boolean expression within the parens.  Having done that,
typing \\[cperl-linefeed] places you - appropriately indented - on a
new line between the braces (if you typed \\[cperl-linefeed] in a POD
directive line, then appropriate number of new lines is inserted).

If CPerl decides that you want to insert \"English\" style construct like

            bite if angry;

it will not do any expansion.  See also help on variable
`cperl-extra-newline-before-brace'.  (Note that one can switch the
help message on expansion by setting `cperl-message-electric-keyword'
to nil.)

\\[cperl-linefeed] is a convenience replacement for typing carriage
return.  It places you in the next line with proper indentation, or if
you type it inside the inline block of control construct, like

            foreach (@lines) {print; print}

and you are on a boundary of a statement inside braces, it will
transform the construct into a multiline and will place you into an
appropriately indented blank line.  If you need a usual
`newline-and-indent' behavior, it is on \\[newline-and-indent],
see documentation on `cperl-electric-linefeed'.

Use \\[cperl-invert-if-unless] to change a construction of the form

	    if (A) { B }

into

            B if A;

\\{cperl-mode-map}

Setting the variable `cperl-font-lock' to t switches on font-lock-mode
\(even with older Emacsen), `cperl-electric-lbrace-space' to t switches
on electric space between $ and {, `cperl-electric-parens-string' is
the string that contains parentheses that should be electric in CPerl
\(see also `cperl-electric-parens-mark' and `cperl-electric-parens'),
setting `cperl-electric-keywords' enables electric expansion of
control structures in CPerl.  `cperl-electric-linefeed' governs which
one of two linefeed behavior is preferable.  You can enable all these
options simultaneously (recommended mode of use) by setting
`cperl-hairy' to t.  In this case you can switch separate options off
by setting them to `null'.  Note that one may undo the extra
whitespace inserted by semis and braces in `auto-newline'-mode by
consequent \\[cperl-electric-backspace].

If your site has perl5 documentation in info format, you can use commands
\\[cperl-info-on-current-command] and \\[cperl-info-on-command] to access it.
These keys run commands `cperl-info-on-current-command' and
`cperl-info-on-command', which one is which is controlled by variable
`cperl-info-on-command-no-prompt' and `cperl-clobber-lisp-bindings'
\(in turn affected by `cperl-hairy').

Even if you have no info-format documentation, short one-liner-style
help is available on \\[cperl-get-help], and one can run perldoc or
man via menu.

It is possible to show this help automatically after some idle time.
This is regulated by variable `cperl-lazy-help-time'.  Default with
`cperl-hairy' (if the value of `cperl-lazy-help-time' is nil) is 5
secs idle time .  It is also possible to switch this on/off from the
menu, or via \\[cperl-toggle-autohelp].

Use \\[cperl-lineup] to vertically lineup some construction - put the
beginning of the region at the start of construction, and make region
span the needed amount of lines.

Variables `cperl-pod-here-scan', `cperl-pod-here-fontify',
`cperl-pod-face', `cperl-pod-head-face' control processing of POD and
here-docs sections.  Results of scan are used for indentation too.

Variables controlling indentation style:
 `cperl-tab-always-indent'
    Non-nil means TAB in CPerl mode should always reindent the current line,
    regardless of where in the line point is when the TAB command is used.
 `cperl-indent-left-aligned-comments'
    Non-nil means that the comment starting in leftmost column should indent.
 `cperl-auto-newline'
    Non-nil means automatically newline before and after braces,
    and after colons and semicolons, inserted in Perl code.  The following
    \\[cperl-electric-backspace] will remove the inserted whitespace.
    Insertion after colons requires both this variable and
    `cperl-auto-newline-after-colon' set.
 `cperl-auto-newline-after-colon'
    Non-nil means automatically newline even after colons.
    Subject to `cperl-auto-newline' setting.
 `cperl-indent-level'
    Indentation of Perl statements within surrounding block.
    The surrounding block's indentation is the indentation
    of the line on which the open-brace appears.
 `cperl-continued-statement-offset'
    Extra indentation given to a substatement, such as the
    then-clause of an if, or body of a while, or just a statement continuation.
 `cperl-continued-brace-offset'
    Extra indentation given to a brace that starts a substatement.
    This is in addition to `cperl-continued-statement-offset'.
 `cperl-brace-offset'
    Extra indentation for line if it starts with an open brace.
 `cperl-brace-imaginary-offset'
    An open brace following other text is treated as if it the line started
    this far to the right of the actual line indentation.
 `cperl-label-offset'
    Extra indentation for line that is a label.
 `cperl-min-label-indent'
    Minimal indentation for line that is a label.

Settings for classic indent-styles: K&R BSD=C++ GNU PBP PerlStyle=Whitesmith
  `cperl-indent-level'                5   4       2   4   4
  `cperl-brace-offset'                0   0       0   0   0
  `cperl-continued-brace-offset'     -5  -4       0   0   0
  `cperl-label-offset'               -5  -4      -2  -2  -4
  `cperl-continued-statement-offset'  5   4       2   4   4

CPerl knows several indentation styles, and may bulk set the
corresponding variables.  Use \\[cperl-set-style] to do this.  Use
\\[cperl-set-style-back] to restore the memorized preexisting values
\(both available from menu).  See examples in `cperl-style-examples'.

Part of the indentation style is how different parts of if/elsif/else
statements are broken into lines; in CPerl, this is reflected on how
templates for these constructs are created (controlled by
`cperl-extra-newline-before-brace'), and how reflow-logic should treat
\"continuation\" blocks of else/elsif/continue, controlled by the same
variable, and by `cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline',
`cperl-merge-trailing-else', `cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs'.

If `cperl-indent-level' is 0, the statement after opening brace in
column 0 is indented on
`cperl-brace-offset'+`cperl-continued-statement-offset'.

Turning on CPerl mode calls the hooks in the variable `cperl-mode-hook'
with no args.

DO NOT FORGET to read micro-docs (available from `Perl' menu)
or as help on variables `cperl-tips', `cperl-problems',
`cperl-praise', `cperl-speed'."
  (if (cperl-val 'cperl-electric-linefeed)
      (progn
	(local-set-key "\C-J" 'cperl-linefeed)
	(local-set-key "\C-C\C-J" 'newline-and-indent)))
  (if (and
       (cperl-val 'cperl-clobber-lisp-bindings)
       (cperl-val 'cperl-info-on-command-no-prompt))
      (progn
	;; don't clobber the backspace binding:
	(define-key cperl-mode-map "\C-hf" 'cperl-info-on-current-command)
	(define-key cperl-mode-map "\C-c\C-hf" 'cperl-info-on-command)))
  (setq local-abbrev-table cperl-mode-abbrev-table)
  (if (cperl-val 'cperl-electric-keywords)
      (abbrev-mode 1))
  (set-syntax-table cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  ;; Workaround for Bug#30393, needed for Emacs 26.
  (when (< emacs-major-version 27)
    (setq-local open-paren-in-column-0-is-defun-start nil))
  ;; Until Emacs is multi-threaded, we do not actually need it local:
  (make-local-variable 'cperl-font-lock-multiline-start)
  (make-local-variable 'cperl-font-locking)
  (setq-local outline-regexp cperl-outline-regexp)
  (setq-local outline-level 'cperl-outline-level)
  (setq-local add-log-current-defun-function
              (lambda ()
                (save-excursion
                  (if (re-search-backward "^sub[ \t]+\\([^({ \t\n]+\\)" nil t)
                      (match-string-no-properties 1)))))

  (setq-local paragraph-start (concat "^$\\|" page-delimiter))
  (setq-local paragraph-separate paragraph-start)
  (setq-local paragraph-ignore-fill-prefix t)
  (setq-local indent-line-function #'cperl-indent-line)
  (setq-local require-final-newline mode-require-final-newline)
  (setq-local comment-start "# ")
  (setq-local comment-end "")
  (setq-local comment-column cperl-comment-column)
  (setq-local comment-start-skip "#+ *")

;;       "[ \t]*sub"
;;	  (cperl-after-sub-regexp 'named nil) ; 8=name 11=proto 14=attr-start
;;	  cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex	; 15=pre-block
  (setq-local defun-prompt-regexp
              (concat "^[ \t]*\\("
                      cperl-sub-regexp
                      (cperl-after-sub-regexp 'named 'attr-groups)
                      "\\|"			; per toke.c
                      "\\(BEGIN\\|UNITCHECK\\|CHECK\\|INIT\\|END\\|AUTOLOAD\\|DESTROY\\)"
                      "\\)"
                      cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex))
  (setq-local comment-indent-function #'cperl-comment-indent)
  (setq-local fill-paragraph-function #'cperl-fill-paragraph)
  (setq-local parse-sexp-ignore-comments t)
  (setq-local indent-region-function #'cperl-indent-region)
  ;;(setq auto-fill-function #'cperl-do-auto-fill) ; Need to switch on and off!
  (setq-local imenu-create-index-function #'cperl-imenu--create-perl-index)
  (setq-local imenu-sort-function nil)
  (setq-local vc-rcs-header cperl-vc-rcs-header)
  (setq-local vc-sccs-header cperl-vc-sccs-header)
  (when (boundp 'compilation-error-regexp-alist-alist)
    ;; The let here is just a compatibility kludge for the obsolete
    ;; variable `cperl-compilation-error-regexp-alist'.  It can be removed
    ;; when that variable is removed.
    (let ((regexp (if (boundp 'cperl-compilation-error-regexp-alist)
                           (car cperl-compilation-error-regexp-alist)
                         cperl-compilation-error-regexp-list)))
      (setq-local compilation-error-regexp-alist-alist
                  (cons (cons 'cperl regexp)
                        compilation-error-regexp-alist-alist)))
    (make-local-variable 'compilation-error-regexp-alist)
    (push 'cperl compilation-error-regexp-alist))
  (setq-local font-lock-defaults
              '((cperl-load-font-lock-keywords
                 cperl-load-font-lock-keywords-1
                 cperl-load-font-lock-keywords-2)
                nil nil ((?_ . "w"))))
  ;; Reset syntaxification cache.
  (setq-local cperl-syntax-state nil)
  (when cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property
    ;; Reset syntaxification cache.
    (setq-local cperl-syntax-done-to nil)
    (setq-local syntax-propertize-function
                (lambda (start end)
                  (goto-char start)
                  ;; Even if cperl-fontify-syntactically has already gone
                  ;; beyond `start', syntax-propertize has just removed
                  ;; syntax-table properties between start and end, so we have
                  ;; to re-apply them.
                  (setq cperl-syntax-done-to start)
                  (cperl-fontify-syntactically end))))
  (setq cperl-font-lock-multiline t) ; Not localized...
  (setq-local font-lock-multiline t)
  (setq-local font-lock-fontify-region-function
              #'cperl-font-lock-fontify-region-function)
  (make-local-variable 'cperl-old-style)
  (setq-local normal-auto-fill-function
              #'cperl-do-auto-fill)
  (if (cperl-val 'cperl-font-lock)
      (progn (or cperl-faces-init (cperl-init-faces))
	     (font-lock-mode 1)))
  (setq-local facemenu-add-face-function
              #'cperl-facemenu-add-face-function) ; XXXX What this guy is for???
  (and (boundp 'msb-menu-cond)
       (not cperl-msb-fixed)
       (cperl-msb-fix))
  (if cperl-hook-after-change
      (add-hook 'after-change-functions #'cperl-after-change-function nil t))
  ;; After hooks since fontification will break this
  (when (and cperl-pod-here-scan
             (not cperl-syntaxify-by-font-lock))
    (cperl-find-pods-heres))
  ;; Setup Flymake
  (add-hook 'flymake-diagnostic-functions #'perl-flymake nil t))
\f
;; Fix for perldb - make default reasonable
(defun cperl-db ()
  (interactive)
  (require 'gud)
  ;; FIXME: Use `read-string' or `read-shell-command'?
  (perldb (read-from-minibuffer "Run perldb (like this): "
				(if (consp gud-perldb-history)
				    (car gud-perldb-history)
				  (concat "perl -d "
					  (buffer-file-name)))
				nil nil
				'(gud-perldb-history . 1))))
\f
(defun cperl-msb-fix ()
  ;; Adds perl files to msb menu, supposes that msb is already loaded
  (setq cperl-msb-fixed t)
  (let* ((l (length msb-menu-cond))
	 (last (nth (1- l) msb-menu-cond))
	 (precdr (nthcdr (- l 2) msb-menu-cond)) ; cdr of this is last
	 (handle (1- (nth 1 last))))
    (setcdr precdr (list
		    (list
		     '(memq major-mode '(cperl-mode perl-mode))
		     handle
		     "Perl Files (%d)")
		    last))))
\f
;; This is used by indent-for-comment
;; to decide how much to indent a comment in CPerl code
;; based on its context.  Do fallback if comment is found wrong.

(defvar cperl-wrong-comment)
(defvar cperl-st-cfence '(14))		; Comment-fence
(defvar cperl-st-sfence '(15))		; String-fence
(defvar cperl-st-punct '(1))
(defvar cperl-st-word '(2))
(defvar cperl-st-bra '(4 . ?\>))
(defvar cperl-st-ket '(5 . ?\<))


(defun cperl-comment-indent ()		; called at point at supposed comment
  (let ((p (point)) (c (current-column)) was phony)
    (if (and (not cperl-indent-comment-at-column-0)
	     (looking-at "^#"))
	0	; Existing comment at bol stays there.
      ;; Wrong comment found
      (save-excursion
	(setq was (cperl-to-comment-or-eol)
	      phony (eq (get-text-property (point) 'syntax-table)
			cperl-st-cfence))
	(if phony
	    (progn			; Too naive???
	      (re-search-forward "#\\|$") ; Hmm, what about embedded #?
	      (if (eq (preceding-char) ?\#)
		  (forward-char -1))
	      (setq was nil)))
	(if (= (point) p)		; Our caller found a correct place
	    (progn
	      (skip-chars-backward " \t")
	      (setq was (current-column))
	      (if (eq was 0)
		  comment-column
		(max (1+ was) ; Else indent at comment column
		     comment-column)))
	  ;; No, the caller found a random place; we need to edit ourselves
	  (if was nil
	    (insert comment-start)
	    (backward-char (length comment-start)))
	  (setq cperl-wrong-comment t)
	  (cperl-make-indent comment-column 1) ; Indent min 1
	  c)))))

;;(defun cperl-comment-indent-fallback ()
;;  "Is called if the standard comment-search procedure fails.
;;Point is at start of real comment."
;;  (let ((c (current-column)) target cnt prevc)
;;    (if (= c comment-column) nil
;;      (setq cnt (skip-chars-backward " \t"))
;;      (setq target (max (1+ (setq prevc
;;			     (current-column))) ; Else indent at comment column
;;		   comment-column))
;;      (if (= c comment-column) nil
;;	(delete-backward-char cnt)
;;	(while (< prevc target)
;;	  (insert "\t")
;;	  (setq prevc (current-column)))
;;	(if (> prevc target) (progn (delete-char -1) (setq prevc (current-column))))
;;	(while (< prevc target)
;;	  (insert " ")
;;	  (setq prevc (current-column)))))))

(defun cperl-indent-for-comment ()
  "Substitute for `indent-for-comment' in CPerl."
  (interactive)
  (let (cperl-wrong-comment)
    (indent-for-comment)
    (if cperl-wrong-comment		; set by `cperl-comment-indent'
	(progn (cperl-to-comment-or-eol)
	       (forward-char (length comment-start))))))

(defun cperl-comment-region (b e arg)
  "Comment or uncomment each line in the region in CPerl mode.
See `comment-region'."
  (interactive "r\np")
  (let ((comment-start "#"))
    (comment-region b e arg)))

(defun cperl-uncomment-region (b e arg)
  "Uncomment or comment each line in the region in CPerl mode.
See `comment-region'."
  (interactive "r\np")
  (let ((comment-start "#"))
    (comment-region b e (- arg))))

(defvar cperl-brace-recursing nil)

(defun cperl-electric-brace (arg &optional only-before)
  "Insert character and correct line's indentation.
If ONLY-BEFORE and `cperl-auto-newline', will insert newline before the
place (even in empty line), but not after.  If after \")\" and the inserted
char is \"{\", insert extra newline before only if
`cperl-extra-newline-before-brace'."
  (interactive "P")
  (let (insertpos
	(other-end (if (and cperl-electric-parens-mark
			    (region-active-p)
			    (< (mark) (point)))
		       (mark)
		     nil)))
    (if (and other-end
	     (not cperl-brace-recursing)
	     (cperl-val 'cperl-electric-parens)
	     (>= (save-excursion (cperl-to-comment-or-eol) (point)) (point)))
	;; Need to insert a matching pair
	(progn
	  (save-excursion
	    (setq insertpos (point-marker))
	    (goto-char other-end)
	    (setq last-command-event ?\{)
	    (cperl-electric-lbrace arg insertpos))
	  (forward-char 1))
      ;; Check whether we close something "usual" with `}'
      (if (and (eq last-command-event ?\})
	       (not
		(condition-case nil
		    (save-excursion
		      (up-list (- (prefix-numeric-value arg)))
		      ;;(cperl-after-block-p (point-min))
		      (or (cperl-after-expr-p nil "{;)")
			  ;; after sub, else, continue
			  (cperl-after-block-p nil 'pre)))
		  (error nil))))
	  ;; Just insert the guy
	  (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg))
	(if (and (not arg)		; No args, end (of empty line or auto)
		 (eolp)
		 (or (and (null only-before)
			  (save-excursion
			    (skip-chars-backward " \t")
			    (bolp)))
		     (and (eq last-command-event ?\{) ; Do not insert newline
			  ;; if after ")" and `cperl-extra-newline-before-brace'
			  ;; is nil, do not insert extra newline.
			  (not cperl-extra-newline-before-brace)
			  (save-excursion
			    (skip-chars-backward " \t")
			    (eq (preceding-char) ?\))))
		     (if cperl-auto-newline
			 (progn (cperl-indent-line) (newline) t) nil)))
	    (progn
	      (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg))
	      (cperl-indent-line)
	      (if cperl-auto-newline
		  (setq insertpos (1- (point))))
	      (if (and cperl-auto-newline (null only-before))
		  (progn
		    (newline)
		    (cperl-indent-line)))
	      (save-excursion
		(if insertpos (progn (goto-char insertpos)
				     (search-forward (make-string
						      1 last-command-event))
				     (setq insertpos (1- (point)))))
		(delete-char -1))))
	(if insertpos
	    (save-excursion
	      (goto-char insertpos)
	      (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg)))
	  (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg)))))))

(defun cperl-electric-lbrace (arg &optional end)
  "Insert character, correct line's indentation, correct quoting by space."
  (interactive "P")
  (let ((cperl-brace-recursing t)
	(cperl-auto-newline cperl-auto-newline)
	(other-end (or end
		       (if (and cperl-electric-parens-mark
				(region-active-p)
				(> (mark) (point)))
			   (save-excursion
			     (goto-char (mark))
			     (point-marker))
			 nil)))
	pos)
    (and (cperl-val 'cperl-electric-lbrace-space)
	 (eq (preceding-char) ?$)
	 (save-excursion
	   (skip-chars-backward "$")
	   (looking-at "\\(\\$\\$\\)*\\$\\([^\\$]\\|$\\)"))
	 (insert ?\s))
    ;; Check whether we are in comment
    (if (and
	 (save-excursion
	   (beginning-of-line)
	   (not (looking-at "[ \t]*#")))
	 (cperl-after-expr-p nil "{;)"))
	nil
      (setq cperl-auto-newline nil))
    (cperl-electric-brace arg)
    (and (cperl-val 'cperl-electric-parens)
	 (eq last-command-event ?{)
	 (memq last-command-event
	       (append cperl-electric-parens-string nil))
	 (or (if other-end (goto-char (marker-position other-end)))
	     t)
	 (setq last-command-event ?} pos (point))
	 (progn (cperl-electric-brace arg t)
		(goto-char pos)))))

(defun cperl-electric-paren (arg)
  "Insert an opening parenthesis or a matching pair of parentheses.
See `cperl-electric-parens'."
  (interactive "P")
  (let ((other-end (if (and cperl-electric-parens-mark
			    (region-active-p)
			    (> (mark) (point)))
		       (save-excursion
			 (goto-char (mark))
			 (point-marker))
		     nil)))
    (if (and (cperl-val 'cperl-electric-parens)
	     (memq last-command-event
		   (append cperl-electric-parens-string nil))
	     (>= (save-excursion (cperl-to-comment-or-eol) (point)) (point))
	     (if (eq last-command-event ?<)
		 (progn
		   ;; This code is too electric, see Bug#3943.
		   ;; (and abbrev-mode ; later it is too late, may be after `for'
		   ;; 	(expand-abbrev))
		   (cperl-after-expr-p nil "{;(,:="))
	       1))
	(progn
	  (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg))
	  (if other-end (goto-char (marker-position other-end)))
	  (insert (make-string
		   (prefix-numeric-value arg)
		   (cdr (assoc last-command-event '((?{ .?})
						   (?\[ . ?\])
						   (?\( . ?\))
						   (?< . ?>))))))
	  (forward-char (- (prefix-numeric-value arg))))
      (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg)))))

(defun cperl-electric-rparen (arg)
  "Insert a matching pair of parentheses if marking is active.
If not, or if we are not at the end of marking range, would self-insert.
Affected by `cperl-electric-parens'."
  (interactive "P")
  (let ((other-end (if (and cperl-electric-parens-mark
			    (cperl-val 'cperl-electric-parens)
			    (memq last-command-event
				  (append cperl-electric-parens-string nil))
			    (region-active-p)
			    (< (mark) (point)))
		       (mark)
		     nil))
	p)
    (if (and other-end
	     (cperl-val 'cperl-electric-parens)
	     (memq last-command-event '( ?\) ?\] ?\} ?\> ))
	     (>= (save-excursion (cperl-to-comment-or-eol) (point)) (point))
	     )
	(progn
	  (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg))
	  (setq p (point))
	  (if other-end (goto-char other-end))
	  (insert (make-string
		   (prefix-numeric-value arg)
		   (cdr (assoc last-command-event '((?\} . ?\{)
						   (?\] . ?\[)
						   (?\) . ?\()
						   (?\> . ?\<))))))
	  (goto-char (1+ p)))
      (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg)))))

(defun cperl-electric-keyword ()
  "Insert a construction appropriate after a keyword.
Help message may be switched off by setting `cperl-message-electric-keyword'
to nil."
  (let ((beg (point-at-bol))
	(dollar (and (eq last-command-event ?$)
		     (eq this-command 'self-insert-command)))
	(delete (and (memq last-command-event '(?\s ?\n ?\t ?\f))
		     (memq this-command '(self-insert-command newline))))
	my do)
    (and (save-excursion
	   (condition-case nil
	       (progn
		 (backward-sexp 1)
		 (setq do (looking-at "do\\>")))
	     (error nil))
	   (cperl-after-expr-p nil "{;:"))
	 (save-excursion
	   (not
	    (re-search-backward
	     "[#\"'`]\\|\\<q\\(\\|[wqxr]\\)\\>"
	     beg t)))
	 (save-excursion (or (not (re-search-backward "^=" nil t))
			     (or
			      (looking-at "=cut")
			      (looking-at "=end")
			      (and cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property
				   (not (eq (get-text-property (point)
							       'syntax-type)
					    'pod))))))
	 (save-excursion (forward-sexp -1)
			 (not (memq (following-char) (append "$@%&*" nil))))
	 (progn
	   (and (eq (preceding-char) ?y)
		(progn			; "foreachmy"
		  (forward-char -2)
		  (insert " ")
		  (forward-char 2)
		  (setq my t dollar t
			delete
			(memq this-command '(self-insert-command newline)))))
	   (and dollar (insert " $"))
	   (cperl-indent-line)
	   ;;(insert " () {\n}")
 	   (cond
 	    (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace
 	     (insert (if do "\n" " ()\n"))
 	     (insert "{")
 	     (cperl-indent-line)
 	     (insert "\n")
 	     (cperl-indent-line)
 	     (insert "\n}")
	     (and do (insert " while ();")))
 	    (t
 	     (insert (if do " {\n} while ();" " () {\n}"))))
	   (or (looking-at "[ \t]\\|$") (insert " "))
	   (cperl-indent-line)
	   (if dollar (progn (search-backward "$")
			     (if my
				 (forward-char 1)
			       (delete-char 1)))
	     (search-backward ")")
	     (if (eq last-command-event ?\()
		 (progn			; Avoid "if (())"
		   (delete-char -1)
		   (delete-char 1))))
	   (if delete
	       (cperl-putback-char cperl-del-back-ch))
	   (if cperl-message-electric-keyword
	       (message "Precede char by C-q to avoid expansion"))))))

(defun cperl-ensure-newlines (n &optional pos)
  "Make sure there are N newlines after the point."
  (or pos (setq pos (point)))
  (if (looking-at "\n")
      (forward-char 1)
    (insert "\n"))
  (if (> n 1)
      (cperl-ensure-newlines (1- n) pos)
    (goto-char pos)))

(defun cperl-electric-pod ()
  "Insert a POD chunk appropriate after a =POD directive."
  (let ((delete (and (memq last-command-event '(?\s ?\n ?\t ?\f))
		     (memq this-command '(self-insert-command newline))))
	head1 notlast name p really-delete over)
    (and (save-excursion
	   (forward-word-strictly -1)
	   (and
	    (eq (preceding-char) ?=)
	    (progn
	      (setq head1 (looking-at "head1\\>[ \t]*$"))
	      (setq over (and (looking-at "over\\>[ \t]*$")
			      (not (looking-at "over[ \t]*\n\n\n*=item\\>"))))
	      (forward-char -1)
	      (bolp))
	    (or
	     (get-text-property (point) 'in-pod)
	     (cperl-after-expr-p nil "{;:")
	     (and (re-search-backward "\\(\\`\n?\\|^\n\\)=\\sw+" (point-min) t)
		  (not (or (looking-at "\n*=cut") (looking-at "\n*=end")))
		  (or (not cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property)
		      (eq (get-text-property (point) 'syntax-type) 'pod))))))
	 (progn
	   (save-excursion
	     (setq notlast (re-search-forward "^\n=" nil t)))
	   (or notlast
	       (progn
		 (insert "\n\n=cut")
		 (cperl-ensure-newlines 2)
		 (forward-word-strictly -2)
		 (if (and head1
			  (not
			   (save-excursion
			     (forward-char -1)
			     (re-search-backward "\\(\\`\n?\\|\n\n\\)=head1\\>"
						 nil t)))) ; Only one
		     (progn
		       (forward-word-strictly 1)
		       (setq name (file-name-base (buffer-file-name))
			     p (point))
		       (insert " NAME\n\n" name
			       " - \n\n=head1 SYNOPSIS\n\n\n\n"
			       "=head1 DESCRIPTION")
		       (cperl-ensure-newlines 4)
		       (goto-char p)
		       (forward-word-strictly 2)
		       (end-of-line)
		       (setq really-delete t))
		   (forward-word-strictly 1))))
	   (if over
	       (progn
		 (setq p (point))
		 (insert "\n\n=item \n\n\n\n"
			 "=back")
		 (cperl-ensure-newlines 2)
		 (goto-char p)
		 (forward-word-strictly 1)
		 (end-of-line)
		 (setq really-delete t)))
	   (if (and delete really-delete)
	       (cperl-putback-char cperl-del-back-ch))))))

(defun cperl-electric-else ()
  "Insert a construction appropriate after a keyword.
Help message may be switched off by setting `cperl-message-electric-keyword'
to nil."
  (let ((beg (point-at-bol)))
    (and (save-excursion
	   (backward-sexp 1)
	   (cperl-after-expr-p nil "{;:"))
	 (save-excursion
	   (not
	    (re-search-backward
	     "[#\"'`]\\|\\<q\\(\\|[wqxr]\\)\\>"
	     beg t)))
	 (save-excursion (or (not (re-search-backward "^=" nil t))
			     (looking-at "=cut")
			     (looking-at "=end")
			     (and cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property
				  (not (eq (get-text-property (point)
							      'syntax-type)
					   'pod)))))
	 (progn
	   (cperl-indent-line)
	   ;;(insert " {\n\n}")
 	   (cond
 	    (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace
 	     (insert "\n")
 	     (insert "{")
 	     (cperl-indent-line)
 	     (insert "\n\n}"))
 	    (t
 	     (insert " {\n\n}")))
	   (or (looking-at "[ \t]\\|$") (insert " "))
	   (cperl-indent-line)
	   (forward-line -1)
	   (cperl-indent-line)
	   (cperl-putback-char cperl-del-back-ch)
	   (setq this-command 'cperl-electric-else)
	   (if cperl-message-electric-keyword
	       (message "Precede char by C-q to avoid expansion"))))))

(defun cperl-linefeed ()
  "Go to end of line, open a new line and indent appropriately.
If in POD, insert appropriate lines."
  (interactive)
  (let ((beg (point-at-bol))
	(end (point-at-eol))
	(pos (point)) start over cut res)
    (if (and				; Check if we need to split:
					; i.e., on a boundary and inside "{...}"
	 (save-excursion (cperl-to-comment-or-eol)
			 (>= (point) pos)) ; Not in a comment
	 (or (save-excursion
	       (skip-chars-backward " \t" beg)
	       (forward-char -1)
	       (looking-at "[;{]"))     ; After { or ; + spaces
	     (looking-at "[ \t]*}")	; Before }
	     (re-search-forward "\\=[ \t]*;" end t)) ; Before spaces + ;
	 (save-excursion
	   (and
	    (eq (car (parse-partial-sexp pos end -1)) -1)
					; Leave the level of parens
	    (looking-at "[,; \t]*\\($\\|#\\)") ; Comma to allow anon subr
					; Are at end
	    (cperl-after-block-p (point-min))
	    (progn
	      (backward-sexp 1)
	      (setq start (point-marker))
	      (<= start pos)))))	; Redundant?  Are after the
					; start of parens group.
	(progn
	  (skip-chars-backward " \t")
	  (or (memq (preceding-char) (append ";{" nil))
	      (insert ";"))
	  (insert "\n")
	  (forward-line -1)
	  (cperl-indent-line)
	  (goto-char start)
	  (or (looking-at "{[ \t]*$")	; If there is a statement
					; before, move it to separate line
	      (progn
		(forward-char 1)
		(insert "\n")
		(cperl-indent-line)))
	  (forward-line 1)		; We are on the target line
	  (cperl-indent-line)
	  (beginning-of-line)
	  (or (looking-at "[ \t]*}[,; \t]*$") ; If there is a statement
					; after, move it to separate line
	      (progn
		(end-of-line)
		(search-backward "}" beg)
		(skip-chars-backward " \t")
		(or (memq (preceding-char) (append ";{" nil))
		    (insert ";"))
		(insert "\n")
		(cperl-indent-line)
		(forward-line -1)))
	  (forward-line -1)		; We are on the line before target
	  (end-of-line)
	  (newline-and-indent))
      (end-of-line)			; else - no splitting
      (cond
       ((and (looking-at "\n[ \t]*{$")
	     (save-excursion
	       (skip-chars-backward " \t")
	       (eq (preceding-char) ?\)))) ; Probably if () {} group
					; with an extra newline.
	(forward-line 2)
	(cperl-indent-line))
       ((save-excursion			; In POD header
	  (forward-paragraph -1)
	  ;; (re-search-backward "\\(\\`\n?\\|\n\n\\)=head1\\b")
	  ;; We are after \n now, so look for the rest
	  (if (looking-at "\\(\\`\n?\\|\n\\)=\\sw+")
	      (progn
		(setq cut (looking-at "\\(\\`\n?\\|\n\\)=\\(cut\\|end\\)\\>"))
		(setq over (looking-at "\\(\\`\n?\\|\n\\)=over\\>"))
		t)))
	(if (and over
		 (progn
		   (forward-paragraph -1)
		   (forward-word-strictly 1)
		   (setq pos (point))
		   (setq cut (buffer-substring (point) (point-at-eol)))
		   (delete-char (- (point-at-eol) (point)))
		   (setq res (expand-abbrev))
		   (save-excursion
		     (goto-char pos)
		     (insert cut))
		   res))
	    nil
	  (cperl-ensure-newlines (if cut 2 4))
	  (forward-line 2)))
       ((get-text-property (point) 'in-pod) ; In POD section
	(cperl-ensure-newlines 4)
	(forward-line 2))
       ((looking-at "\n[ \t]*$")	; Next line is empty - use it.
        (forward-line 1)
	(cperl-indent-line))
       (t
	(newline-and-indent))))))

(defun cperl-electric-semi (arg)
  "Insert character and correct line's indentation."
  (interactive "P")
  (if cperl-auto-newline
      (cperl-electric-terminator arg)
    (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg))
    (if cperl-autoindent-on-semi
	(cperl-indent-line))))

(defun cperl-electric-terminator (arg)
  "Insert character and correct line's indentation."
  (interactive "P")
  (let ((end (point))
	(auto (and cperl-auto-newline
		   (or (not (eq last-command-event ?:))
		       cperl-auto-newline-after-colon)))
	insertpos)
    (if (and ;;(not arg)
	     (eolp)
	     (not (save-excursion
		    (beginning-of-line)
		    (skip-chars-forward " \t")
		    (or
		     ;; Ignore in comment lines
		     (= (following-char) ?#)
		     ;; Colon is special only after a label
		     ;; So quickly rule out most other uses of colon
		     ;; and do no indentation for them.
		     (and (eq last-command-event ?:)
			  (save-excursion
			    (forward-word-strictly 1)
			    (skip-chars-forward " \t")
			    (and (< (point) end)
				 (progn (goto-char (- end 1))
					(not (looking-at ":"))))))
		     (progn
		       (beginning-of-defun)
		       (let ((pps (parse-partial-sexp (point) end)))
			 (or (nth 3 pps) (nth 4 pps) (nth 5 pps))))))))
	(progn
	  (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg))
	  ;;(forward-char -1)
	  (if auto (setq insertpos (point-marker)))
	  ;;(forward-char 1)
	  (cperl-indent-line)
	  (if auto
	      (progn
		(newline)
		(cperl-indent-line)))
	  (save-excursion
	    (if insertpos (goto-char (1- (marker-position insertpos)))
	      (forward-char -1))
	    (delete-char 1))))
    (if insertpos
	(save-excursion
	  (goto-char insertpos)
	  (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg)))
      (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg)))))

(defun cperl-electric-backspace (arg)
  "Backspace, or remove whitespace around the point inserted by an electric key.
Will untabify if `cperl-electric-backspace-untabify' is non-nil."
  (interactive "p")
  (if (and cperl-auto-newline
	   (memq last-command '(cperl-electric-semi
				cperl-electric-terminator
				cperl-electric-lbrace))
	   (memq (preceding-char) '(?\s ?\t ?\n)))
      (let (p)
	(if (eq last-command 'cperl-electric-lbrace)
	    (skip-chars-forward " \t\n"))
	(setq p (point))
	(skip-chars-backward " \t\n")
	(delete-region (point) p))
    (and (eq last-command 'cperl-electric-else)
	 ;; We are removing the whitespace *inside* cperl-electric-else
	 (setq this-command 'cperl-electric-else-really))
    (if (and cperl-auto-newline
	     (eq last-command 'cperl-electric-else-really)
	     (memq (preceding-char) '(?\s ?\t ?\n)))
	(let (p)
	  (skip-chars-forward " \t\n")
	  (setq p (point))
	  (skip-chars-backward " \t\n")
	  (delete-region (point) p))
      (if cperl-electric-backspace-untabify
	  (backward-delete-char-untabify arg)
	(call-interactively 'delete-backward-char)))))

(put 'cperl-electric-backspace 'delete-selection 'supersede)

(defun cperl-inside-parens-p ()		;; NOT USED????
  (condition-case ()
      (save-excursion
	(save-restriction
	  (narrow-to-region (point)
			    (progn (beginning-of-defun) (point)))
	  (goto-char (point-max))
	  (= (char-after (or (scan-lists (point) -1 1) (point-min))) ?\()))
    (error nil)))
\f
(defun cperl-indent-command (&optional whole-exp)
  "Indent current line as Perl code, or in some cases insert a tab character.
If `cperl-tab-always-indent' is non-nil (the default), always indent current
line.  Otherwise, indent the current line only if point is at the left margin
or in the line's indentation; otherwise insert a tab.

A numeric argument, regardless of its value,
means indent rigidly all the lines of the expression starting after point
so that this line becomes properly indented.
The relative indentation among the lines of the expression are preserved."
  (interactive "P")
  (cperl-update-syntaxification (point))
  (if whole-exp
      ;; If arg, always indent this line as Perl
      ;; and shift remaining lines of expression the same amount.
      (let ((shift-amt (cperl-indent-line))
	    beg end)
	(save-excursion
	  (if cperl-tab-always-indent
	      (beginning-of-line))
	  (setq beg (point))
	  (forward-sexp 1)
	  (setq end (point))
	  (goto-char beg)
	  (forward-line 1)
	  (setq beg (point)))
	(if (and shift-amt (> end beg))
	    (indent-code-rigidly beg end shift-amt "#")))
    (if (and (not cperl-tab-always-indent)
	     (save-excursion
	       (skip-chars-backward " \t")
	       (not (bolp))))
	(insert-tab)
      (cperl-indent-line))))

(defun cperl-indent-line (&optional parse-data)
  "Indent current line as Perl code.
Return the amount the indentation changed by."
  (let ((case-fold-search nil)
	(pos (- (point-max) (point)))
	indent i shift-amt)
    (setq indent (cperl-calculate-indent parse-data)
	  i indent)
    (beginning-of-line)
    (cond ((or (eq indent nil) (eq indent t))
	   (setq indent (current-indentation) i nil))
	  ;;((eq indent t)    ; Never?
	  ;; (setq indent (cperl-calculate-indent-within-comment)))
	  ;;((looking-at "[ \t]*#")
	  ;; (setq indent 0))
	  (t
	   (skip-chars-forward " \t")
	   (if (listp indent) (setq indent (car indent)))
	   (cond ((and (looking-at "[A-Za-z_][A-Za-z_0-9]*:[^:]")
		       (not (looking-at "[smy]:\\|tr:")))
		  (and (> indent 0)
		       (setq indent (max cperl-min-label-indent
					 (+ indent cperl-label-offset)))))
		 ((= (following-char) ?})
		  (setq indent (- indent cperl-indent-level)))
		 ((memq (following-char) '(?\) ?\])) ; To line up with opening paren.
		  (setq indent (+ indent cperl-close-paren-offset)))
		 ((= (following-char) ?{)
		  (setq indent (+ indent cperl-brace-offset))))))
    (skip-chars-forward " \t")
    (setq shift-amt (and i (- indent (current-column))))
    (if (or (not shift-amt)
	    (zerop shift-amt))
	(if (> (- (point-max) pos) (point))
	    (goto-char (- (point-max) pos)))
      ;;(delete-region beg (point))
      ;;(indent-to indent)
      (cperl-make-indent indent)
      ;; If initial point was within line's indentation,
      ;; position after the indentation.  Else stay at same point in text.
      (if (> (- (point-max) pos) (point))
	  (goto-char (- (point-max) pos))))
    shift-amt))

(defun cperl-after-label ()
  ;; Returns true if the point is after label.  Does not do save-excursion.
  (and (eq (preceding-char) ?:)
       (memq (char-syntax (char-after (- (point) 2)))
	     '(?w ?_))
       (progn
	 (backward-sexp)
	 (looking-at "[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*:[^:]"))))

(defun cperl-get-state (&optional parse-start start-state)
  "Return list (START STATE DEPTH PRESTART),
START is a good place to start parsing, or equal to
PARSE-START if preset,
STATE is what is returned by `parse-partial-sexp'.
DEPTH is true is we are immediately after end of block
which contains START.
PRESTART is the position basing on which START was found."
  (save-excursion
    (let ((start-point (point)) depth state start prestart)
      (if (and parse-start
	       (<= parse-start start-point))
	  (goto-char parse-start)
	(beginning-of-defun)
	(setq start-state nil))
      (setq prestart (point))
      (if start-state nil
	;; Try to go out, if sub is not on the outermost level
	(while (< (point) start-point)
	  (setq start (point) parse-start start depth nil
		state (parse-partial-sexp start start-point -1))
	  (if (> (car state) -1) nil
	    ;; The current line could start like }}}, so the indentation
	    ;; corresponds to a different level than what we reached
	    (setq depth t)
	    (beginning-of-line 2)))	; Go to the next line.
	(if start (goto-char start)))	; Not at the start of file
      (setq start (point))
      (or state (setq state (parse-partial-sexp start start-point -1 nil start-state)))
      (list start state depth prestart))))

(defvar cperl-look-for-prop '((pod in-pod) (here-doc-delim here-doc-group)))

(defun cperl-beginning-of-property (p prop &optional lim)
  "Given that P has a property PROP, find where the property starts.
Will not look before LIM."
;;; XXXX What to do at point-max???
  (or (previous-single-property-change (cperl-1+ p) prop lim)
      (point-min))
  ;; (cond ((eq p (point-min))
  ;;        p)
  ;;       ((and lim (<= p lim))
  ;;        p)
  ;;       ((not (get-text-property (1- p) prop))
  ;;        p)
  ;;       (t (or (previous-single-property-change p look-prop lim)
  ;;              (point-min))))
  )

(defun cperl-sniff-for-indent (&optional parse-data) ; was parse-start
  ;; the sniffer logic to understand what the current line MEANS.
  (cperl-update-syntaxification (point))
  (let ((res (get-text-property (point) 'syntax-type)))
    (save-excursion
      (cond
       ((and (memq res '(pod here-doc here-doc-delim format))
	     (not (get-text-property (point) 'indentable)))
	(vector res))
       ;; before start of POD - whitespace found since do not have 'pod!
       ((looking-at "[ \t]*\n=")
	(error "Spaces before POD section!"))
       ((and (not cperl-indent-left-aligned-comments)
	     (looking-at "^#"))
	[comment-special:at-beginning-of-line])
       ((get-text-property (point) 'in-pod)
	[in-pod])
       (t
	(beginning-of-line)
	(let* ((indent-point (point))
	       (char-after-pos (save-excursion
				 (skip-chars-forward " \t")
				 (point)))
	       (char-after (char-after char-after-pos))
	       (pre-indent-point (point))
	       p prop look-prop is-block delim)
	  (save-excursion		; Know we are not in POD, find appropriate pos before
	    (cperl-backward-to-noncomment nil)
	    (setq p (max (point-min) (1- (point)))
		  prop (get-text-property p 'syntax-type)
		  look-prop (or (nth 1 (assoc prop cperl-look-for-prop))
				'syntax-type))
	    (if (memq prop '(pod here-doc format here-doc-delim))
		(progn
		  (goto-char (cperl-beginning-of-property p look-prop))
		  (beginning-of-line)
		  (setq pre-indent-point (point)))))
	  (goto-char pre-indent-point)	; Orig line skipping preceding pod/etc
	  (let* ((case-fold-search nil)
		 (s-s (cperl-get-state (car parse-data) (nth 1 parse-data)))
		 (start (or (nth 2 parse-data) ; last complete sexp terminated
			    (nth 0 s-s))) ; Good place to start parsing
		 (state (nth 1 s-s))
		 (containing-sexp (car (cdr state)))
		 old-indent)
	    (if (and
		 ;;containing-sexp		;; We are buggy at toplevel :-(
		 parse-data)
		(progn
		  (setcar parse-data pre-indent-point)
		  (setcar (cdr parse-data) state)
		  (or (nth 2 parse-data)
		      (setcar (cddr parse-data) start))
		  ;; Before this point: end of statement
		  (setq old-indent (nth 3 parse-data))))
	    (cond ((get-text-property (point) 'indentable)
		   ;; indent to "after" the surrounding open
		   ;; (same offset as `cperl-beautify-regexp-piece'),
		   ;; skip blanks if we do not close the expression.
		   (setq delim		; We do not close the expression
			 (get-text-property
			  (cperl-1+ char-after-pos) 'indentable)
			 p (1+ (cperl-beginning-of-property
				(point) 'indentable))
			 is-block	; misused for: preceding line in REx
			 (save-excursion ; Find preceding line
			   (cperl-backward-to-noncomment p)
			   (beginning-of-line)
			   (if (<= (point) p)
			       (progn	; get indent from the first line
				 (goto-char p)
				 (skip-chars-forward " \t")
				 (if (memq (char-after (point))
					   (append "#\n" nil))
				     nil ; Can't use indentation of this line...
				   (point)))
			     (skip-chars-forward " \t")
			     (point)))
			 prop (parse-partial-sexp p char-after-pos))
		   (cond ((not delim)	; End the REx, ignore is-block
			  (vector 'indentable 'terminator p is-block))
			 (is-block	; Indent w.r.t. preceding line
			  (vector 'indentable 'cont-line char-after-pos
				  is-block char-after p))
			 (t		; No preceding line...
			  (vector 'indentable 'first-line p))))
		  ((get-text-property char-after-pos 'REx-part2)
		   (vector 'REx-part2 (point)))
		  ((nth 4 state)
		   [comment])
		  ((nth 3 state)
		   [string])
		  ;; XXXX Do we need to special-case this?
		  ((null containing-sexp)
		   ;; Line is at top level.  May be data or function definition,
		   ;; or may be function argument declaration.
		   ;; Indent like the previous top level line
		   ;; unless that ends in a closeparen without semicolon,
		   ;; in which case this line is the first argument decl.
		   (skip-chars-forward " \t")
		   (cperl-backward-to-noncomment (or old-indent (point-min)))
		   (setq state
			 (or (bobp)
			     (eq (point) old-indent) ; old-indent was at comment
			     (eq (preceding-char) ?\;)
			     ;;  Had ?\) too
			     (and (eq (preceding-char) ?\})
				  (cperl-after-block-and-statement-beg
				   (point-min))) ; Was start - too close
			     (memq char-after (append ")]}" nil))
			     (and (eq (preceding-char) ?\:) ; label
				  (progn
				    (forward-sexp -1)
				    (skip-chars-backward " \t")
				    (looking-at "[ \t]*[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*[ \t]*:")))
			     (get-text-property (point) 'first-format-line)))

		   ;; Look at previous line that's at column 0
		   ;; to determine whether we are in top-level decls
		   ;; or function's arg decls.  Set basic-indent accordingly.
		   ;; Now add a little if this is a continuation line.
		   (and state
			parse-data
			(not (eq char-after ?\C-j))
			(setcdr (cddr parse-data)
				(list pre-indent-point)))
		   (vector 'toplevel start char-after state (nth 2 s-s)))
		  ((not
		    (or (setq is-block
			      (and (setq delim (= (char-after containing-sexp) ?{))
				   (save-excursion ; Is it a hash?
				     (goto-char containing-sexp)
				     (cperl-block-p))))
			cperl-indent-parens-as-block))
		   ;; group is an expression, not a block:
		   ;; indent to just after the surrounding open parens,
		   ;; skip blanks if we do not close the expression.
		   (goto-char (1+ containing-sexp))
		   (or (memq char-after
			     (append (if delim "}" ")]}") nil))
		       (looking-at "[ \t]*\\(#\\|$\\)")
		       (skip-chars-forward " \t"))
		   (setq old-indent (point)) ; delim=is-brace
		   (vector 'in-parens char-after (point) delim containing-sexp))
		  (t
		   ;; Statement level.  Is it a continuation or a new statement?
		   ;; Find previous non-comment character.
		   (goto-char pre-indent-point) ; Skip one level of POD/etc
		   (cperl-backward-to-noncomment containing-sexp)
		   ;; Back up over label lines, since they don't
		   ;; affect whether our line is a continuation.
		   ;; (Had \, too)
		   (while;;(or (eq (preceding-char) ?\,)
		       (and (eq (preceding-char) ?:)
			    (or;;(eq (char-after (- (point) 2)) ?\') ; ????
			     (memq (char-syntax (char-after (- (point) 2)))
				   '(?w ?_))))
		     ;;)
		     ;; This is always FALSE?
		     (if (eq (preceding-char) ?\,)
			 ;; Will go to beginning of line, essentially.
			 ;; Will ignore embedded sexpr XXXX.
			 (cperl-backward-to-start-of-continued-exp containing-sexp))
		     (beginning-of-line)
		     (cperl-backward-to-noncomment containing-sexp))
		   ;; Now we get non-label preceding the indent point
		   (if (not (or (eq (1- (point)) containing-sexp)
                                (and cperl-indent-parens-as-block
                                     (not is-block))
				(memq (preceding-char)
				      (append (if is-block " ;{" " ,;{") '(nil)))
				(and (eq (preceding-char) ?\})
				     (cperl-after-block-and-statement-beg
				      containing-sexp))
				(get-text-property (point) 'first-format-line)))
		       ;; This line is continuation of preceding line's statement;
		       ;; indent  `cperl-continued-statement-offset'  more than the
		       ;; previous line of the statement.
		       ;;
		       ;; There might be a label on this line, just
		       ;; consider it bad style and ignore it.
		       (progn
			 (cperl-backward-to-start-of-continued-exp containing-sexp)
			 (vector 'continuation (point) char-after is-block delim))
		     ;; This line starts a new statement.
		     ;; Position following last unclosed open brace
		     (goto-char containing-sexp)
		     ;; Is line first statement after an open-brace?
		     (or
		      ;; If no, find that first statement and indent like
		      ;; it.  If the first statement begins with label, do
		      ;; not believe when the indentation of the label is too
		      ;; small.
		      (save-excursion
			(forward-char 1)
			(let ((colon-line-end 0))
			  (while
			      (progn (skip-chars-forward " \t\n")
				     ;; s: foo : bar :x is NOT label
				     (and (looking-at "#\\|\\([a-zA-Z0-9_$]+\\):[^:]\\|=[a-zA-Z]")
					  (not (looking-at "[sym]:\\|tr:"))))
			    ;; Skip over comments and labels following openbrace.
			    (cond ((= (following-char) ?\#)
				   (forward-line 1))
				  ((= (following-char) ?\=)
				   (goto-char
				    (or (next-single-property-change (point) 'in-pod)
					(point-max)))) ; do not loop if no syntaxification
				  ;; label:
				  (t
				   (setq colon-line-end (point-at-eol))
				   (search-forward ":"))))
			  ;; We are at beginning of code (NOT label or comment)
			  ;; First, the following code counts
			  ;; if it is before the line we want to indent.
			  (and (< (point) indent-point)
			       (vector 'have-prev-sibling (point) colon-line-end
				       containing-sexp))))
		      (progn
			;; If no previous statement,
			;; indent it relative to line brace is on.

			;; For open-braces not the first thing in a line,
			;; add in cperl-brace-imaginary-offset.

			;; If first thing on a line:  ?????
			;; Move back over whitespace before the openbrace.
			(setq		; brace first thing on a line
			 old-indent (progn (skip-chars-backward " \t") (bolp)))
			;; Should we indent w.r.t. earlier than start?
			;; Move to start of control group, possibly on a different line
			(or cperl-indent-wrt-brace
			    (cperl-backward-to-noncomment (point-min)))
			;; If the openbrace is preceded by a parenthesized exp,
			;; move to the beginning of that;
			(if (eq (preceding-char) ?\))
			    (progn
			      (forward-sexp -1)
			      (cperl-backward-to-noncomment (point-min))))
			;; In the case it starts a subroutine, indent with
			;; respect to `sub', not with respect to the
			;; first thing on the line, say in the case of
			;; anonymous sub in a hash.
			(if (and;; Is it a sub in group starting on this line?
                             cperl-indent-subs-specially
			     (cond ((get-text-property (point) 'attrib-group)
				    (goto-char (cperl-beginning-of-property
						(point) 'attrib-group)))
				   ((eq (preceding-char) ?b)
				    (forward-sexp -1)
				    (looking-at (concat cperl-sub-regexp "\\>"))))
			     (setq p (nth 1 ; start of innermost containing list
					  (parse-partial-sexp
					   (point-at-bol)
					   (point)))))
			    (progn
			      (goto-char (1+ p)) ; enclosing block on the same line
			      (skip-chars-forward " \t")
			      (vector 'code-start-in-block containing-sexp char-after
				      (and delim (not is-block)) ; is a HASH
				      old-indent ; brace first thing on a line
				      t (point) ; have something before...
				      )
			      ;;(current-column)
			      )
			  ;; Get initial indentation of the line we are on.
			  ;; If line starts with label, calculate label indentation
			  (vector 'code-start-in-block containing-sexp char-after
				  (and delim (not is-block)) ; is a HASH
				  old-indent ; brace first thing on a line
				  nil (point))))))))))))))) ; nothing interesting before

(defvar cperl-indent-rules-alist
  '((pod nil)				; via `syntax-type' property
    (here-doc nil)			; via `syntax-type' property
    (here-doc-delim nil)		; via `syntax-type' property
    (format nil)			; via `syntax-type' property
    (in-pod nil)			; via `in-pod' property
    (comment-special:at-beginning-of-line nil)
    (string t)
    (comment nil))
  "Alist of indentation rules for CPerl mode.
The values mean:
  nil: do not indent;
  FUNCTION: a function to compute the indentation to use.
    Takes a single argument which provides the currently computed indentation
    context, and should return the column to which to indent.
  NUMBER: add this amount of indentation.")

(defun cperl-calculate-indent (&optional parse-data) ; was parse-start
  "Return appropriate indentation for current line as Perl code.
In usual case returns an integer: the column to indent to.
Returns nil if line starts inside a string, t if in a comment.

Will not correct the indentation for labels, but will correct it for braces
and closing parentheses and brackets."
  ;; This code is still a broken architecture: in some cases we need to
  ;; compensate for some modifications which `cperl-indent-line' will add later
  (save-excursion
    (let ((i (cperl-sniff-for-indent parse-data)) what p)
      (cond
       ;;((or (null i) (eq i t) (numberp i))
       ;;  i)
       ((vectorp i)
	(setq what (assoc (elt i 0) cperl-indent-rules-alist))
	(cond
         (what
          (let ((action (cadr what)))
            (cond ((functionp action) (apply action (list i parse-data)))
                  ((numberp action) (+ action (current-indentation)))
                  (t action))))
	 ;;
	 ;; Indenters for regular expressions with //x and qw()
	 ;;
	 ((eq 'REx-part2 (elt i 0)) ;; [self start] start of /REP in s//REP/x
	  (goto-char (elt i 1))
	  (condition-case nil	; Use indentation of the 1st part
	      (forward-sexp -1))
	  (current-column))
	 ((eq 'indentable (elt i 0))	; Indenter for REGEXP qw() etc
	  (cond		       ;;; [indentable terminator start-pos is-block]
	   ((eq 'terminator (elt i 1)) ; Lone terminator of "indentable string"
	    (goto-char (elt i 2))	; After opening parens
	    (1- (current-column)))
	   ((eq 'first-line (elt i 1)); [indentable first-line start-pos]
	    (goto-char (elt i 2))
	    (+ (or cperl-regexp-indent-step cperl-indent-level)
	       -1
	       (current-column)))
	   ((eq 'cont-line (elt i 1)); [indentable cont-line pos prev-pos first-char start-pos]
	    ;; Indent as the level after closing parens
	    (goto-char (elt i 2))	; indent line
	    (skip-chars-forward " \t)") ; Skip closing parens
	    (setq p (point))
	    (goto-char (elt i 3))	; previous line
	    (skip-chars-forward " \t)") ; Skip closing parens
	    ;; Number of parens in between:
	    (setq p (nth 0 (parse-partial-sexp (point) p))
		  what (elt i 4))	; First char on current line
	    (goto-char (elt i 3))	; previous line
	    (+ (* p (or cperl-regexp-indent-step cperl-indent-level))
	       (cond ((eq what ?\) )
		      (- cperl-close-paren-offset)) ; compensate
		     ((eq what ?\| )
		      (- (or cperl-regexp-indent-step cperl-indent-level)))
		     (t 0))
	       (if (eq (following-char) ?\| )
		   (or cperl-regexp-indent-step cperl-indent-level)
		 0)
	       (current-column)))
	   (t
	    (error "Unrecognized value of indent: %s" i))))
	 ;;
	 ;; Indenter for stuff at toplevel
	 ;;
	 ((eq 'toplevel (elt i 0)) ;; [toplevel start char-after state immed-after-block]
	  (+ (save-excursion		; To beg-of-defun, or end of last sexp
	       (goto-char (elt i 1))	; start = Good place to start parsing
	       (- (current-indentation) ;
		  (if (elt i 4) cperl-indent-level 0)))	; immed-after-block
	     (if (eq (elt i 2) ?{) cperl-continued-brace-offset 0) ; char-after
	     ;; Look at previous line that's at column 0
	     ;; to determine whether we are in top-level decls
	     ;; or function's arg decls.  Set basic-indent accordingly.
	     ;; Now add a little if this is a continuation line.
	     (if (elt i 3)		; state (XXX What is the semantic???)
		 0
	       cperl-continued-statement-offset)))
	 ;;
	 ;; Indenter for stuff in "parentheses" (or brackets, braces-as-hash)
	 ;;
	 ((eq 'in-parens (elt i 0))
	  ;; in-parens char-after old-indent-point is-brace containing-sexp

	  ;; group is an expression, not a block:
	  ;; indent to just after the surrounding open parens,
	  ;; skip blanks if we do not close the expression.
	  (+ (progn
	       (goto-char (elt i 2))		; old-indent-point
	       (current-column))
	     (if (and (elt i 3)		; is-brace
		      (eq (elt i 1) ?\})) ; char-after
		 ;; Correct indentation of trailing ?\}
		 (+ cperl-indent-level cperl-close-paren-offset)
	       0)))
	 ;;
	 ;; Indenter for continuation lines
	 ;;
	 ((eq 'continuation (elt i 0))
	  ;; [continuation statement-start char-after is-block is-brace]
	  (goto-char (elt i 1))		; statement-start
	  (+ (if (or (memq (elt i 2) (append "}])" nil)) ; char-after
                     (eq 'continuation ; do not stagger continuations
                         (elt (cperl-sniff-for-indent parse-data) 0)))
		 0 ; Closing parenthesis or continuation of a continuation
	       cperl-continued-statement-offset)
	     (if (or (elt i 3)		; is-block
		     (not (elt i 4))		; is-brace
		     (not (eq (elt i 2) ?\}))) ; char-after
		 0
	       ;; Now it is a hash reference
	       (+ cperl-indent-level cperl-close-paren-offset))
	     ;; Labels do not take :: ...
	     (if (looking-at "\\(\\w\\|_\\)+[ \t]*:")
		 (if (> (current-indentation) cperl-min-label-indent)
		     (- (current-indentation) cperl-label-offset)
		   ;; Do not move `parse-data', this should
		   ;; be quick anyway (this comment comes
		   ;; from different location):
		   (cperl-calculate-indent))
	       (current-column))
	     (if (eq (elt i 2) ?\{)	; char-after
		 cperl-continued-brace-offset 0)))
	 ;;
	 ;; Indenter for lines in a block which are not leading lines
	 ;;
	 ((eq 'have-prev-sibling (elt i 0))
	  ;; [have-prev-sibling sibling-beg colon-line-end block-start]
	  (goto-char (elt i 1))		; sibling-beg
	  (if (> (elt i 2) (point)) ; colon-line-end; have label before point
	      (if (> (current-indentation)
		     cperl-min-label-indent)
		  (- (current-indentation) cperl-label-offset)
		;; Do not believe: `max' was involved in calculation of indent
		(+ cperl-indent-level
		   (save-excursion
		     (goto-char (elt i 3)) ; block-start
		     (current-indentation))))
	    (current-column)))
	 ;;
	 ;; Indenter for the first line in a block
	 ;;
	 ((eq 'code-start-in-block (elt i 0))
	  ;;[code-start-in-block before-brace char-after
	  ;; is-a-HASH-ref brace-is-first-thing-on-a-line
	  ;; group-starts-before-start-of-sub start-of-control-group]
	  (goto-char (elt i 1))
	  ;; For open brace in column zero, don't let statement
	  ;; start there too.  If cperl-indent-level=0,
	  ;; use cperl-brace-offset + cperl-continued-statement-offset instead.
	  (+ (if (and (bolp) (zerop cperl-indent-level))
		 (+ cperl-brace-offset cperl-continued-statement-offset)
	       cperl-indent-level)
	     (if (and (elt i 3)	; is-a-HASH-ref
		      (eq (elt i 2) ?\})) ; char-after: End of a hash reference
		 (+ cperl-indent-level cperl-close-paren-offset)
	       0)
	     ;; Unless openbrace is the first nonwhite thing on the line,
	     ;; add the cperl-brace-imaginary-offset.
	     (if (elt i 4) 0		; brace-is-first-thing-on-a-line
	       cperl-brace-imaginary-offset)
	     (progn
	       (goto-char (elt i 6))	; start-of-control-group
	       (if (elt i 5)		; group-starts-before-start-of-sub
		   (current-column)
		 ;; Get initial indentation of the line we are on.
		 ;; If line starts with label, calculate label indentation
		 (if (save-excursion
		       (beginning-of-line)
		       (looking-at "[ \t]*[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*:[^:]"))
		     (if (> (current-indentation) cperl-min-label-indent)
			 (- (current-indentation) cperl-label-offset)
		       ;; Do not move `parse-data', this should
		       ;; be quick anyway:
		       (cperl-calculate-indent))
		   (current-indentation))))))
	 (t
	  (error "Unrecognized value of indent: %s" i))))
       (t
	(error "Got strange value of indent: %s" i))))))

(defun cperl-calculate-indent-within-comment ()
  "Return the indentation amount for line, assuming that
the current line is to be regarded as part of a block comment."
  (let (end)
    (save-excursion
      (beginning-of-line)
      (skip-chars-forward " \t")
      (setq end (point))
      (and (= (following-char) ?#)
	   (forward-line -1)
	   (cperl-to-comment-or-eol)
	   (setq end (point)))
      (goto-char end)
      (current-column))))


(defun cperl-to-comment-or-eol ()
  "Go to position before comment on the current line, or to end of line.
Returns true if comment is found.  In POD will not move the point."
  ;; If the line is inside other syntax groups (qq-style strings, HERE-docs)
  ;; then looks for literal # or end-of-line.
  (let (state stop-in cpoint (lim (point-at-eol)) pr e)
    (or cperl-font-locking
	(cperl-update-syntaxification lim))
    (beginning-of-line)
    (if (setq pr (get-text-property (point) 'syntax-type))
	(setq e (next-single-property-change (point) 'syntax-type nil (point-max))))
    (if (or (eq pr 'pod)
	    (if (or (not e) (> e lim))	; deep inside a group
		(re-search-forward "\\=[ \t]*\\(#\\|$\\)" lim t)))
	(if (eq (preceding-char) ?\#) (progn (backward-char 1) t))
      ;; Else - need to do it the hard way
      (and (and e (<= e lim))
	   (goto-char e))
      (while (not stop-in)
	(setq state (parse-partial-sexp (point) lim nil nil nil t))
					; stop at comment
	;; If fails (beginning-of-line inside sexp), then contains not-comment
	(if (nth 4 state)		; After `#';
					; (nth 2 state) can be
					; beginning of m,s,qq and so
					; on
	    (if (nth 2 state)
		(progn
		  (setq cpoint (point))
		  (goto-char (nth 2 state))
		  (cond
		   ((looking-at "\\(s\\|tr\\)\\>")
		    (or (re-search-forward
			 "\\=\\w+[ \t]*#\\([^\n\\#]\\|\\\\[\\#]\\)*#\\([^\n\\#]\\|\\\\[\\#]\\)*"
			 lim 'move)
			(setq stop-in t)))
		   ((looking-at "\\(m\\|q\\([qxwr]\\)?\\)\\>")
		    (or (re-search-forward
			 "\\=\\w+[ \t]*#\\([^\n\\#]\\|\\\\[\\#]\\)*#"
			 lim 'move)
			(setq stop-in t)))
		   (t			; It was fair comment
		    (setq stop-in t)	; Finish
		    (goto-char (1- cpoint)))))
	      (setq stop-in t)		; Finish
	      (forward-char -1))
	  (setq stop-in t)))		; Finish
      (nth 4 state))))

(defsubst cperl-modify-syntax-type (at how)
  (if (< at (point-max))
      (progn
	(put-text-property at (1+ at) 'syntax-table how)
	(put-text-property at (1+ at) 'rear-nonsticky '(syntax-table)))))

(defun cperl-protect-defun-start (s e)
  ;; C code looks for "^\\s(" to skip comment backward in "hard" situations
  (save-excursion
    (goto-char s)
    (while (re-search-forward "^\\s(" e 'to-end)
      (put-text-property (1- (point)) (point) 'syntax-table cperl-st-punct))))

(defun cperl-commentify (bb e string &optional noface)
  (if cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property
      (if (eq noface 'n)		; Only immediate
	  nil
	;; We suppose that e is _after_ the end of construction, as after eol.
	(setq string (if string cperl-st-sfence cperl-st-cfence))
	(if (> bb (- e 2))
	    ;; one-char string/comment?!
	    (cperl-modify-syntax-type bb cperl-st-punct)
	  (cperl-modify-syntax-type bb string)
	  (cperl-modify-syntax-type (1- e) string))
	(if (and (eq string cperl-st-sfence) (> (- e 2) bb))
	    (put-text-property (1+ bb) (1- e)
			       'syntax-table cperl-string-syntax-table))
	(cperl-protect-defun-start bb e))
    ;; Fontify
    (or noface
	(not cperl-pod-here-fontify)
	(put-text-property bb e 'face (if string 'font-lock-string-face
					'font-lock-comment-face)))))

(defvar cperl-starters '(( ?\( . ?\) )
			 ( ?\[ . ?\] )
			 ( ?\{ . ?\} )
			 ( ?\< . ?\> )))

(defun cperl-cached-syntax-table (st)
  "Get a syntax table cached in ST, or create and cache into ST a syntax table.
All the entries of the syntax table are \".\", except for a backslash, which
is quoting."
  (if (car-safe st)
      (car st)
    (setcar st (make-syntax-table))
    (setq st (car st))
    (let ((i 0))
      (while (< i 256)
	(modify-syntax-entry i "." st)
	(setq i (1+ i))))
    (modify-syntax-entry ?\\ "\\" st)
    st))

(defun cperl-forward-re (lim end is-2arg st-l err-l argument
			     &optional ostart oend)
"Find the end of a regular expression or a stringish construct (q[] etc).
The point should be before the starting delimiter.

Goes to LIM if none is found.  If IS-2ARG is non-nil, assumes that it
is s/// or tr/// like expression.  If END is nil, generates an error
message if needed.  If SET-ST is non-nil, will use (or generate) a
cached syntax table in ST-L.  If ERR-L is non-nil, will store the
error message in its CAR (unless it already contains some error
message).  ARGUMENT should be the name of the construct (used in error
messages).  OSTART, OEND may be set in recursive calls when processing
the second argument of 2ARG construct.

Works *before* syntax recognition is done.  In IS-2ARG situation may
modify syntax-type text property if the situation is too hard."
  (let (b starter ender st i i2 go-forward reset-st set-st)
    (skip-chars-forward " \t")
    ;; ender means matching-char matcher.
    (setq b (point)
	  starter (if (eobp) 0 (char-after b))
	  ender (cdr (assoc starter cperl-starters)))
    ;; What if starter == ?\\  ????
    (setq st (cperl-cached-syntax-table st-l))
    (setq set-st t)
    ;; Whether we have an intermediate point
    (setq i nil)
    ;; Prepare the syntax table:
    (if (not ender)		; m/blah/, s/x//, s/x/y/
	(modify-syntax-entry starter "$" st)
      (modify-syntax-entry starter (concat "(" (list ender)) st)
      (modify-syntax-entry ender  (concat ")" (list starter)) st))
    (condition-case bb
	(progn
	  ;; We use `$' syntax class to find matching stuff, but $$
	  ;; is recognized the same as $, so we need to check this manually.
	  (if (and (eq starter (char-after (cperl-1+ b)))
		   (not ender))
	      ;; $ has TeXish matching rules, so $$ equiv $...
	      (forward-char 2)
	    (setq reset-st (syntax-table))
	    (set-syntax-table st)
	    (forward-sexp 1)
	    (if (<= (point) (1+ b))
		(error "Unfinished regular expression"))
	    (set-syntax-table reset-st)
	    (setq reset-st nil)
	    ;; Now the problem is with m;blah;;
	    (and (not ender)
		 (eq (preceding-char)
		     (char-after (- (point) 2)))
		 (save-excursion
		   (forward-char -2)
		   (= 0 (% (skip-chars-backward "\\\\") 2)))
		 (forward-char -1)))
	  ;; Now we are after the first part.
	  (and is-2arg			; Have trailing part
	       (not ender)
	       (eq (following-char) starter) ; Empty trailing part
	       (progn
		 (or (eq (char-syntax (following-char)) ?.)
		     ;; Make trailing letter into punctuation
		     (cperl-modify-syntax-type (point) cperl-st-punct))
		 (setq is-2arg nil go-forward t))) ; Ignore the tail
	  (if is-2arg			; Not number => have second part
	      (progn
		(setq i (point) i2 i)
		(if ender
		    (if (memq (following-char) '(?\s ?\t ?\n ?\f))
			(progn
			  (if (looking-at "[ \t\n\f]+\\(#[^\n]*\n[ \t\n\f]*\\)+")
			      (goto-char (match-end 0))
			    (skip-chars-forward " \t\n\f"))
			  (setq i2 (point))))
		  (forward-char -1))
		(modify-syntax-entry starter (if (eq starter ?\\) "\\" ".") st)
		(if ender (modify-syntax-entry ender "." st))
		(setq set-st nil)
		(setq ender (cperl-forward-re lim end nil st-l err-l
					      argument starter ender)
		      ender (nth 2 ender)))))
      (error (goto-char lim)
	     (setq set-st nil)
	     (if reset-st
		 (set-syntax-table reset-st))
	     (or end
		 (and cperl-brace-recursing
		      (or (eq ostart  ?\{)
			  (eq starter ?\{)))
		 (message
		  "End of `%s%s%c ... %c' string/RE not found: %s"
		  argument
		  (if ostart (format "%c ... %c" ostart (or oend ostart)) "")
		  starter (or ender starter) bb)
		 (or (car err-l) (setcar err-l b)))))
    (if set-st
	(progn
	  (modify-syntax-entry starter (if (eq starter ?\\) "\\" ".") st)
	  (if ender (modify-syntax-entry ender "." st))))
    ;; i: have 2 args, after end of the first arg
    ;; i2: start of the second arg, if any (before delim if `ender').
    ;; ender: the last arg bounded by parens-like chars, the second one of them
    ;; starter: the starting delimiter of the first arg
    ;; go-forward: has 2 args, and the second part is empty
    (list i i2 ender starter go-forward)))

(defun cperl-forward-group-in-re (&optional st-l)
  "Find the end of a group in a REx.
Return the error message (if any).  Does not work if delimiter is `)'.
Works before syntax recognition is done."
  ;; Works *before* syntax recognition is done
  (or st-l (setq st-l (list nil)))	; Avoid overwriting '()
  (let (st result reset-st)
    (condition-case err
	(progn
	  (setq st (cperl-cached-syntax-table st-l))
	  (modify-syntax-entry ?\( "()" st)
	  (modify-syntax-entry ?\) ")(" st)
	  (setq reset-st (syntax-table))
	  (set-syntax-table st)
	  (forward-sexp 1))
      (error (setq result err)))
    ;; now restore the initial state
    (if st
	(progn
	  (modify-syntax-entry ?\( "." st)
	  (modify-syntax-entry ?\) "." st)))
    (if reset-st
	(set-syntax-table reset-st))
    result))


(defsubst cperl-postpone-fontification (b e type val &optional now)
  ;; Do after syntactic fontification?
  (if cperl-syntaxify-by-font-lock
      (or now (put-text-property b e 'cperl-postpone (cons type val)))
    (put-text-property b e type val)))

;; Here is how the global structures (those which cannot be
;; recognized locally) are marked:
;;	a) PODs:
;;		Start-to-end is marked `in-pod' ==> t
;;		Each non-literal part is marked `syntax-type' ==> `pod'
;;		Each literal part is marked `syntax-type' ==> `in-pod'
;;	b) HEREs:
;;		Start-to-end is marked `here-doc-group' ==> t
;;		The body is marked `syntax-type' ==> `here-doc'
;;		The delimiter is marked `syntax-type' ==> `here-doc-delim'
;;	c) FORMATs:
;;		First line (to =) marked `first-format-line' ==> t
;;		After-this--to-end is marked `syntax-type' ==> `format'
;;	d) 'Q'uoted string:
;;		part between markers inclusive is marked `syntax-type' ==> `string'
;;		part between `q' and the first marker is marked `syntax-type' ==> `prestring'
;;		second part of s///e is marked `syntax-type' ==> `multiline'
;;	e) Attributes of subroutines: `attrib-group' ==> t
;;		(or 0 if declaration); up to `{' or ';': `syntax-type' => `sub-decl'.
;;      f) Multiline my/our declaration lists etc: `syntax-type' => `multiline'

;; In addition, some parts of RExes may be marked as `REx-interpolated'
;; (value: 0 in //o, 1 if "interpolated variable" is whole-REx, t otherwise).

(defun cperl-unwind-to-safe (before &optional end)
  ;; if BEFORE, go to the previous start-of-line on each step of unwinding
  (let ((pos (point)))
    (while (and pos (progn
		      (beginning-of-line)
		      (get-text-property (setq pos (point)) 'syntax-type)))
      (setq pos (cperl-beginning-of-property pos 'syntax-type))
      (if (eq pos (point-min))
	  (setq pos nil))
      (if pos
	  (if before
	      (progn
		(goto-char (cperl-1- pos))
		(beginning-of-line)
		(setq pos (point)))
	    (goto-char (setq pos (cperl-1- pos))))
	;; Up to the start
	(goto-char (point-min))))
    ;; Skip empty lines
    (and (looking-at "\n*=")
	 (/= 0 (skip-chars-backward "\n"))
	 (forward-char))
    (setq pos (point))
    (if end
	;; Do the same for end, going small steps
	(save-excursion
	  (while (and end (< end (point-max))
		      (get-text-property end 'syntax-type))
	    (setq pos end
		  end (next-single-property-change end 'syntax-type nil (point-max)))
	    (if end (progn (goto-char end)
			   (or (bolp) (forward-line 1))
			   (setq end (point)))))
	  (or end pos)))))

(defun cperl-find-sub-attrs (&optional st-l b-fname e-fname pos)
  "Syntactically mark (and fontify) attributes of a subroutine.
Should be called with the point before leading colon of an attribute."
  ;; Works *before* syntax recognition is done
  (or st-l (setq st-l (list nil)))	; Avoid overwriting '()
  (let (st p reset-st after-first (start (point)) start1 end1)
    (condition-case b
	(while (looking-at
		(concat
		 "\\("			; 1=optional? colon
		   ":" cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex ; 2=whitespace/comment?
		 "\\)"
		 (if after-first "?" "")
		 ;; No space between name and paren allowed...
		 "\\(\\sw+\\)"		; 3=name
		 "\\((\\)?"))		; 4=optional paren
	  (and (match-beginning 1)
	       (cperl-postpone-fontification
		(match-beginning 0) (cperl-1+ (match-beginning 0))
		'face font-lock-constant-face))
	  (setq start1 (match-beginning 3) end1 (match-end 3))
	  (cperl-postpone-fontification start1 end1
					'face font-lock-constant-face)
	  (goto-char end1)		; end or before `('
	  (if (match-end 4)		; Have attribute arguments...
	      (progn
		(if st nil
		  (setq st (cperl-cached-syntax-table st-l))
		  (modify-syntax-entry ?\( "()" st)
		  (modify-syntax-entry ?\) ")(" st))
		(setq reset-st (syntax-table) p (point))
		(set-syntax-table st)
		(forward-sexp 1)
		(set-syntax-table reset-st)
		(setq reset-st nil)
		(cperl-commentify p (point) t))) ; mark as string
	  (forward-comment (buffer-size))
	  (setq after-first t))
      (error (message
	      "L%d: attribute `%s': %s"
	      (count-lines (point-min) (point))
	      (and start1 end1 (buffer-substring start1 end1)) b)
	     (setq start nil)))
    (and start
	 (progn
	   (put-text-property start (point)
			      'attrib-group (if (looking-at "{") t 0))
	   (and pos
		(< 1 (count-lines (+ 3 pos) (point))) ; end of `sub'
		;; Apparently, we do not need `multiline': faces added now
		(put-text-property (+ 3 pos) (cperl-1+ (point))
				   'syntax-type 'sub-decl))
	   (and b-fname			; Fontify here: the following condition
		(cperl-postpone-fontification ; is too hard to determine by
		 b-fname e-fname 'face ; a REx, so do it here
		(if (looking-at "{")
		    font-lock-function-name-face
		  font-lock-variable-name-face)))))
    ;; now restore the initial state
    (if st
	(progn
	  (modify-syntax-entry ?\( "." st)
	  (modify-syntax-entry ?\) "." st)))
    (if reset-st
	(set-syntax-table reset-st))))

(defsubst cperl-look-at-leading-count (is-x-REx e)
  (if (and
       (< (point) e)
       (re-search-forward (concat "\\=" (if is-x-REx "[ \t\n]*" "") "[{?+*]")
			  (1- e) t))	; return nil on failure, no moving
      (if (eq ?\{ (preceding-char)) nil
	(cperl-postpone-fontification
	 (1- (point)) (point)
	 'face font-lock-warning-face))))

;; Do some smarter-highlighting
;; XXXX Currently ignores alphanum/dash delims,
(defsubst cperl-highlight-charclass (endbracket dashface bsface onec-space)
  (let ((l '(1 5 7)) ll lle lll
	;; 2 groups, the first takes the whole match (include \[trnfabe])
	(singleChar (concat "\\(" "[^\\]" "\\|" "\\\\[^cdg-mo-qsu-zA-Z0-9_]" "\\|" "\\\\c." "\\|" "\\\\x" "\\([[:xdigit:]][[:xdigit:]]?\\|\\={[[:xdigit:]]+}\\)" "\\|" "\\\\0?[0-7][0-7]?[0-7]?" "\\|" "\\\\N{[^{}]*}" "\\)")))
    (while				; look for unescaped - between non-classes
	(re-search-forward
	 ;; On 19.33, certain simplifications lead
	 ;; to bugs (as in  [^a-z] \\| [trnfabe]  )
	 (concat	       		; 1: SingleChar (include \[trnfabe])
	  singleChar
	  ;;"\\(" "[^\\]" "\\|" "\\\\[^cdg-mo-qsu-zA-Z0-9_]" "\\|" "\\\\c." "\\|" "\\\\x" "\\([[:xdigit:]][[:xdigit:]]?\\|\\={[[:xdigit:]]+}\\)" "\\|" "\\\\0?[0-7][0-7]?[0-7]?" "\\|" "\\\\N{[^{}]*}" "\\)"
	  "\\("				; 3: DASH SingleChar (match optionally)
	    "\\(-\\)"			; 4: DASH
	    singleChar			; 5: SingleChar
	    ;;"\\(" "[^\\]" "\\|" "\\\\[^cdg-mo-qsu-zA-Z0-9_]" "\\|" "\\\\c." "\\|" "\\\\x" "\\([[:xdigit:]][[:xdigit:]]?\\|\\={[[:xdigit:]]+}\\)" "\\|" "\\\\0?[0-7][0-7]?[0-7]?" "\\|" "\\\\N{[^{}]*}" "\\)"
	  "\\)?"
	  "\\|"
	  "\\("				; 7: other escapes
	    "\\\\[pP]" "\\([^{]\\|{[^{}]*}\\)"
	    "\\|" "\\\\[^pP]" "\\)"
	  )
	 endbracket 'toend)
      (if (match-beginning 4)
	  (cperl-postpone-fontification
	   (match-beginning 4) (match-end 4)
	   'face dashface))
      ;; save match data (for looking-at)
      (setq lll (mapcar (lambda (elt) (cons (match-beginning elt)
                                       (match-end elt)))
                        l))
      (while lll
	(setq ll (car lll))
	(setq lle (cdr ll)
	      ll (car ll))
	;; (message "Got %s of %s" ll l)
	(if (and ll (eq (char-after ll) ?\\ ))
	    (save-excursion
	      (goto-char ll)
	      (cperl-postpone-fontification ll (1+ ll)
	       'face bsface)
	      (if (looking-at "\\\\[a-zA-Z0-9]")
		  (cperl-postpone-fontification (1+ ll) lle
		   'face onec-space))))
	(setq lll (cdr lll))))
    (goto-char endbracket)		; just in case something misbehaves???
    t))

;; Debugging this may require (setq max-specpdl-size 2000)...
(defun cperl-find-pods-heres (&optional min max non-inter end ignore-max end-of-here-doc)
  "Scans the buffer for hard-to-parse Perl constructions.
If `cperl-pod-here-fontify' is not-nil after evaluation, will fontify
the sections using `cperl-pod-head-face', `cperl-pod-face',
`cperl-here-face'."
  (interactive)
  (or min (setq min (point-min)
		cperl-syntax-state nil
		cperl-syntax-done-to min))
  (or max (setq max (point-max)))
  (let* ((cperl-pod-here-fontify (eval cperl-pod-here-fontify)) go tmpend
	 face head-face here-face b e bb tag qtag b1 e1 argument i c tail tb
	 is-REx is-x-REx REx-subgr-start REx-subgr-end was-subgr i2 hairy-RE
	 (case-fold-search nil) (inhibit-read-only t) (buffer-undo-list t)
	 (modified (buffer-modified-p)) overshoot is-o-REx name
	 (inhibit-modification-hooks t)
	 (cperl-font-locking t)
	 (use-syntax-state (and cperl-syntax-state
				(>= min (car cperl-syntax-state))))
	 (state-point (if use-syntax-state
			  (car cperl-syntax-state)
			(point-min)))
	 (state (if use-syntax-state
		    (cdr cperl-syntax-state)))
	 ;; (st-l '(nil)) (err-l '(nil)) ; Would overwrite - propagates from a function call to a function call!
	 (st-l (list nil)) (err-l (list nil))
	 ;; Somehow font-lock may be not loaded yet...
	 ;; (e.g., when building TAGS via command-line call)
	 (font-lock-string-face (if (boundp 'font-lock-string-face)
				    font-lock-string-face
				  'font-lock-string-face))
	 (my-cperl-delimiters-face
	  font-lock-constant-face)
	 (my-cperl-REx-spec-char-face	; [] ^.$ and wrapper-of ({})
          font-lock-function-name-face)
	 (my-cperl-REx-0length-face ; 0-length, (?:)etc, non-literal \
          font-lock-builtin-face)
	 (my-cperl-REx-ctl-face		; (|)
          font-lock-keyword-face)
	 (my-cperl-REx-modifiers-face	; //gims
	  'cperl-nonoverridable-face)
	 (my-cperl-REx-length1-face	; length=1 escaped chars, POSIX classes
          font-lock-type-face)
	 (stop-point (if ignore-max
			 (point-max)
		       max))
	 (search
	  (concat
	   "\\(\\`\n?\\|^\n\\)="	; POD
	   "\\|"
	   ;; One extra () before this:
	   "<<\\(~?\\)"		 ; HERE-DOC, indented-p = capture 2
	   "\\("			; 2 + 1
	   ;; First variant "BLAH" or just ``.
	   "[ \t]*"			; Yes, whitespace is allowed!
	   "\\([\"'`]\\)"		; 3 + 1 = 4
	   "\\([^\"'`\n]*\\)"		; 4 + 1
	   "\\4"
	   "\\|"
	   ;; Second variant: Identifier or \ID (same as 'ID') or empty
	   "\\\\?\\(\\([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*\\)?\\)" ; 5 + 1, 6 + 1
	   ;; Do not have <<= or << 30 or <<30 or << $blah.
	   ;; "\\([^= \t0-9$@%&]\\|[ \t]+[^ \t\n0-9$@%&]\\)" ; 6 + 1
	   "\\)"
	   "\\|"
	   ;; 1+6 extra () before this:
	   "^[ \t]*\\(format\\)[ \t]*\\([a-zA-Z0-9_]+\\)?[ \t]*=[ \t]*$" ;FRMAT
	   (if cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property
	       (concat
		"\\|"
		;; 1+6+2=9 extra () before this:
		"\\<\\(q[wxqr]?\\|[msy]\\|tr\\)\\>" ; QUOTED CONSTRUCT
		"\\|"
		;; 1+6+2+1=10 extra () before this:
		"\\([/<]\\)"	; /blah/ or <file*glob>
		"\\|"
		;; 1+6+2+1+1=11 extra () before this
		"\\<" cperl-sub-regexp "\\>" ;  sub with proto/attr
		"\\("
		   cperl-white-and-comment-rex
		   "\\(::[a-zA-Z_:'0-9]*\\|[a-zA-Z_'][a-zA-Z_:'0-9]*\\)\\)?" ; name
		"\\("
		   cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex
		   "\\(([^()]*)\\|:[^:]\\)\\)" ; prototype or attribute start
		"\\|"
		;; 1+6+2+1+1+6=17 extra () before this:
		"\\$\\(['{]\\)"		; $' or ${foo}
		"\\|"
		;; 1+6+2+1+1+6+1=18 extra () before this (old pack'var syntax;
		;; we do not support intervening comments...):
		"\\(\\<" cperl-sub-regexp "[ \t\n\f]+\\|[&*$@%]\\)[a-zA-Z0-9_]*'"
		;; 1+6+2+1+1+6+1+1=19 extra () before this:
		"\\|"
		"__\\(END\\|DATA\\)__"	; __END__ or __DATA__
		;; 1+6+2+1+1+6+1+1+1=20 extra () before this:
		"\\|"
		"\\\\\\(['`\"($]\\)")	; BACKWACKED something-hairy
	     "")))
         warning-message)
    (unwind-protect
	(progn
	  (save-excursion
	    (or non-inter
		(message "Scanning for \"hard\" Perl constructions..."))
	    ;;(message "find: %s --> %s" min max)
	    (and cperl-pod-here-fontify
		 ;; We had evals here, do not know why...
		 (setq face cperl-pod-face
		       head-face cperl-pod-head-face
		       here-face cperl-here-face))
	    (remove-text-properties min max
				    '(syntax-type t in-pod t syntax-table t
						  attrib-group t
						  REx-interpolated t
						  cperl-postpone t
						  syntax-subtype t
						  rear-nonsticky t
						  front-sticky t
						  here-doc-group t
						  first-format-line t
						  REx-part2 t
						  indentable t))
	    ;; Need to remove face as well...
	    (goto-char min)
	    (while (and
		    (< (point) max)
		    (re-search-forward search max t))
	      (setq tmpend nil)		; Valid for most cases
	      (setq b (match-beginning 0)
		    state (save-excursion (parse-partial-sexp
					   state-point b nil nil state))
		    state-point b)
	      (cond
	       ;; 1+6+2+1+1+6=17 extra () before this:
	       ;;    "\\$\\(['{]\\)"
	       ((match-beginning 18) ; $' or ${foo}
		(if (eq (preceding-char) ?\') ; $'
		    (progn
		      (setq b (1- (point))
			    state (parse-partial-sexp
				   state-point (1- b) nil nil state)
			    state-point (1- b))
		      (if (nth 3 state)	; in string
			  (cperl-modify-syntax-type (1- b) cperl-st-punct))
		      (goto-char (1+ b)))
		  ;; else: ${
		  (setq bb (match-beginning 0))
		  (cperl-modify-syntax-type bb cperl-st-punct)))
	       ;; No processing in strings/comments beyond this point:
	       ((or (nth 3 state) (nth 4 state))
		t)			; Do nothing in comment/string
	       ((match-beginning 1)	; POD section
		;;  "\\(\\`\n?\\|^\n\\)="
		(setq b (match-beginning 0)
		      state (parse-partial-sexp
			     state-point b nil nil state)
		      state-point b)
		(if (or (nth 3 state) (nth 4 state)
			(looking-at "\\(cut\\|end\\)\\>"))
		    (if (or (nth 3 state) (nth 4 state) ignore-max)
			nil		; Doing a chunk only
		      (setq warning-message "=cut is not preceded by a POD section")
		      (or (car err-l) (setcar err-l (point))))
		  (beginning-of-line)

		  (setq b (point)
			bb b
			tb (match-beginning 0)
			b1 nil)		; error condition
		  ;; We do not search to max, since we may be called from
		  ;; some hook of fontification, and max is random
		  (or (re-search-forward "^\n=\\(cut\\|end\\)\\>" stop-point 'toend)
		      (progn
			(goto-char b)
			(if (re-search-forward "\n=\\(cut\\|end\\)\\>" stop-point 'toend)
			    (progn
			      (setq warning-message "=cut is not preceded by an empty line")
			      (setq b1 t)
			      (or (car err-l) (setcar err-l b))))))
		  (beginning-of-line 2)	; An empty line after =cut is not POD!
		  (setq e (point))
		  (and (> e max)
		       (progn
			 (remove-text-properties
			  max e '(syntax-type t in-pod t syntax-table t
					      attrib-group t
					      REx-interpolated t
					      cperl-postpone t
					      syntax-subtype t
					      here-doc-group t
					      rear-nonsticky t
					      front-sticky t
					      first-format-line t
					      REx-part2 t
					      indentable t))
			 (setq tmpend tb)))
		  (put-text-property b e 'in-pod t)
		  (put-text-property b e 'syntax-type 'in-pod)
		  (goto-char b)
		  (while (re-search-forward "\n\n[ \t]" e t)
		    ;; We start 'pod 1 char earlier to include the preceding line
		    (beginning-of-line)
		    (put-text-property (cperl-1- b) (point) 'syntax-type 'pod)
		    (cperl-put-do-not-fontify b (point) t)
		    ;; mark the non-literal parts as PODs
		    (if cperl-pod-here-fontify
			(cperl-postpone-fontification b (point) 'face face t))
		    (re-search-forward "\n\n[^ \t\f\n]" e 'toend)
		    (beginning-of-line)
		    (setq b (point)))
		  (put-text-property (cperl-1- (point)) e 'syntax-type 'pod)
		  (cperl-put-do-not-fontify (point) e t)
		  (if cperl-pod-here-fontify
		      (progn
			;; mark the non-literal parts as PODs
			(cperl-postpone-fontification (point) e 'face face t)
			(goto-char bb)
			(if (looking-at
			     "=[a-zA-Z0-9_]+\\>[ \t]*\\(\\(\n?[^\n]\\)+\\)$")
			    ;; mark the headers
			    (cperl-postpone-fontification
			     (match-beginning 1) (match-end 1)
			     'face head-face))
			(while (re-search-forward
				;; One paragraph
				"^\n=[a-zA-Z0-9_]+\\>[ \t]*\\(\\(\n?[^\n]\\)+\\)$"
				e 'toend)
			  ;; mark the headers
			  (cperl-postpone-fontification
			   (match-beginning 1) (match-end 1)
			   'face head-face))))
		  (cperl-commentify bb e nil)
		  (goto-char e)
		  (or (eq e (point-max))
		      (forward-char -1)))) ; Prepare for immediate POD start.
	       ;; Here document
	       ;; We can do many here-per-line;
	       ;; but multiline quote on the same line as <<HERE confuses us...
               ;; ;; One extra () before this:
	       ;;"<<"
	       ;;  "\\("			; 1 + 1
	       ;;  ;; First variant "BLAH" or just ``.
	       ;;     "[ \t]*"			; Yes, whitespace is allowed!
	       ;;     "\\([\"'`]\\)"	; 2 + 1
	       ;;     "\\([^\"'`\n]*\\)"	; 3 + 1
	       ;;     "\\3"
	       ;;  "\\|"
	       ;;  ;; Second variant: Identifier or \ID or empty
	       ;;    "\\\\?\\(\\([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*\\)?\\)" ; 4 + 1, 5 + 1
	       ;;    ;; Do not have <<= or << 30 or <<30 or << $blah.
	       ;;    ;; "\\([^= \t0-9$@%&]\\|[ \t]+[^ \t\n0-9$@%&]\\)" ; 6 + 1
	       ;;    "\\(\\)"		; To preserve count of pars :-( 6 + 1
	       ;;  "\\)"
	       ((match-beginning 3)	; 2 + 1: found "<<", detect its type
		(setq b (point)
		      tb (match-beginning 0)
		      c (and		; not HERE-DOC
			 (match-beginning 6)
			 (save-match-data
			   (or (looking-at "[ \t]*(") ; << function_call()
			       (looking-at ">>")      ; <<>> operator
			       (save-excursion ; 1 << func_name, or $foo << 10
				 (condition-case nil
				     (progn
				       (goto-char tb)
	       ;;; XXX What to do: foo <<bar ???
	       ;;; XXX Need to support print {a} <<B ???
				       (forward-sexp -1)
				       (save-match-data
					; $foo << b; $f .= <<B;
					; ($f+1) << b; a($f) . <<B;
					; foo 1, <<B; $x{a} <<b;
					 (cond
					  ((looking-at "[0-9$({]")
					   (forward-sexp 1)
					   (and
					    (looking-at "[ \t]*<<")
					    (condition-case nil
						;; print $foo <<EOF
						(progn
						  (forward-sexp -2)
						  (not
						   (looking-at "\\(printf?\\|say\\|system\\|exec\\|sort\\)\\>")))
						(error t)))))))
				   (error nil))) ; func(<<EOF)
			       (and (not (match-beginning 7)) ; Empty
				    (looking-at
				     "[ \t]*[=0-9$@%&(]"))))))
		(if c			; Not here-doc
		    nil			; Skip it.
		  (setq c (match-end 3)) ; 2 + 1
		  (if (match-beginning 6) ;6 + 1
		      (setq b1 (match-beginning 6) ; 5 + 1
			    e1 (match-end 6)) ; 5 + 1
		    (setq b1 (match-beginning 5) ; 4 + 1
			  e1 (match-end 5))) ; 4 + 1
		  (setq tag (buffer-substring b1 e1)
			qtag (regexp-quote tag))
		  (cond (cperl-pod-here-fontify
			 ;; Highlight the starting delimiter
			 (cperl-postpone-fontification
			  b1 e1 'face my-cperl-delimiters-face)
			 (cperl-put-do-not-fontify b1 e1 t)))
		  (forward-line)
		  (setq i (point))
		  (if end-of-here-doc
		      (goto-char end-of-here-doc))
		  (setq b (point))
		  ;; We do not search to max, since we may be called from
		  ;; some hook of fontification, and max is random
		  (or (and (re-search-forward
			    (concat "^" (when (equal (match-string 2) "~") "[ \t]*")
				    qtag "$")
			    stop-point 'toend)
			   ;;;(eq (following-char) ?\n) ; XXXX WHY???
			   )
		    (progn		; Pretend we matched at the end
		      (goto-char (point-max))
		      (re-search-forward "\\'")
		      (setq warning-message
                            (format "End of here-document `%s' not found." tag))
		      (or (car err-l) (setcar err-l b))))
		  (if cperl-pod-here-fontify
		      (progn
			;; Highlight the ending delimiter
			(cperl-postpone-fontification
			 (match-beginning 0) (match-end 0)
			 'face my-cperl-delimiters-face)
			(cperl-put-do-not-fontify b (match-end 0) t)
			;; Highlight the HERE-DOC
			(cperl-postpone-fontification b (match-beginning 0)
						      'face here-face)))
		  (setq e1 (cperl-1+ (match-end 0)))
		  (put-text-property b (match-beginning 0)
				     'syntax-type 'here-doc)
		  (put-text-property (match-beginning 0) e1
				     'syntax-type 'here-doc-delim)
		  (put-text-property b e1 'here-doc-group t)
		  ;; This makes insertion at the start of HERE-DOC update
		  ;; the whole construct:
		  (put-text-property b (cperl-1+ b) 'front-sticky '(syntax-type))
		  (cperl-commentify b e1 nil)
		  (cperl-put-do-not-fontify b (match-end 0) t)
		  ;; Cache the syntax info...
		  (setq cperl-syntax-state (cons state-point state))
		  ;; ... and process the rest of the line...
		  (setq overshoot
			(elt		; non-inter ignore-max
			 (cperl-find-pods-heres c i t end t e1) 1))
		  (if (and overshoot (> overshoot (point)))
		      (goto-char overshoot)
		    (setq overshoot e1))
		  (if (> e1 max)
		      (setq tmpend tb))))
	       ;; format
	       ((match-beginning 8)
		;; 1+6=7 extra () before this:
		;;"^[ \t]*\\(format\\)[ \t]*\\([a-zA-Z0-9_]+\\)?[ \t]*=[ \t]*$"
		(setq b (point)
		      name (if (match-beginning 8) ; 7 + 1
			       (buffer-substring (match-beginning 8) ; 7 + 1
						 (match-end 8)) ; 7 + 1
			     "")
		      tb (match-beginning 0))
		(setq argument nil)
		(put-text-property (point-at-bol) b 'first-format-line 't)
		(if cperl-pod-here-fontify
		    (while (and (eq (forward-line) 0)
				(not (looking-at "^[.;]$")))
		      (cond
		       ((looking-at "^#")) ; Skip comments
		       ((and argument	; Skip argument multi-lines
			     (looking-at "^[ \t]*{"))
			(forward-sexp 1)
			(setq argument nil))
		       (argument	; Skip argument lines
			(setq argument nil))
		       (t		; Format line
			(setq b1 (point))
			(setq argument (looking-at "^[^\n]*[@^]"))
			(end-of-line)
			;; Highlight the format line
			(cperl-postpone-fontification b1 (point)
						      'face font-lock-string-face)
			(cperl-commentify b1 (point) nil)
			(cperl-put-do-not-fontify b1 (point) t))))
		  ;; We do not search to max, since we may be called from
		  ;; some hook of fontification, and max is random
		  (re-search-forward "^[.;]$" stop-point 'toend))
		(beginning-of-line)
		(if (looking-at "^\\.$") ; ";" is not supported yet
		    (progn
		      ;; Highlight the ending delimiter
		      (cperl-postpone-fontification (point) (+ (point) 2)
						    'face font-lock-string-face)
		      (cperl-commentify (point) (+ (point) 2) nil)
		      (cperl-put-do-not-fontify (point) (+ (point) 2) t))
		  (setq warning-message
                        (format "End of format `%s' not found." name))
		  (or (car err-l) (setcar err-l b)))
		(forward-line)
		(if (> (point) max)
		    (setq tmpend tb))
		(put-text-property b (point) 'syntax-type 'format))
	       ;; qq-like String or Regexp:
	       ((or (match-beginning 10) (match-beginning 11))
		;; 1+6+2=9 extra () before this:
		;; "\\<\\(q[wxqr]?\\|[msy]\\|tr\\)\\>"
		;; "\\|"
		;; "\\([/<]\\)"	; /blah/ or <file*glob>
		(setq b1 (if (match-beginning 10) 10 11)
		      argument (buffer-substring
				(match-beginning b1) (match-end b1))
		      b (point)		; end of qq etc
		      i b
		      c (char-after (match-beginning b1))
		      bb (char-after (1- (match-beginning b1))) ; tmp holder
		      ;; bb == "Not a stringy"
		      bb (if (eq b1 10) ; user variables/whatever
                             (or
                              ; false positive: "y_" has no word boundary
                              (save-match-data (looking-at "_"))
			      (and (memq bb (append "$@%*#_:-&>" nil)) ; $#y)
				   (cond ((eq bb ?-) (eq c ?s)) ; -s file test
					 ((eq bb ?\:) ; $opt::s
					  (eq (char-after
					       (- (match-beginning b1) 2))
					      ?\:))
					 ((eq bb ?\>) ; $foo->s
					  (eq (char-after
					       (- (match-beginning b1) 2))
					      ?\-))
					 ((eq bb ?\&)
					  (not (eq (char-after ; &&m/blah/
						    (- (match-beginning b1) 2))
						   ?\&)))
					 (t t))))
			   ;; <file> or <$file>
			   (and (eq c ?\<)
				;; Do not stringify <FH>, <$fh> :
				(save-match-data
				  (looking-at
				   "\\$?\\([_a-zA-Z:][_a-zA-Z0-9:]*\\)?>"))))
		      tb (match-beginning 0))
		(goto-char (match-beginning b1))
		(cperl-backward-to-noncomment (point-min))
		(or bb
		    (if (eq b1 11)	; bare /blah/ or <foo>
			(setq argument ""
			      b1 nil
			      bb	; Not a regexp?
			      (not
			       ;; What is below: regexp-p?
			       (and
				(or (memq (preceding-char)
					  (append (if (char-equal c ?\<)
						      ;; $a++ ? 1 : 2
						      "~{(=|&*!,;:["
						    "~{(=|&+-*!,;:[") nil))
				    (and (eq (preceding-char) ?\})
					 (cperl-after-block-p (point-min)))
				    (and (eq (char-syntax (preceding-char)) ?w)
					 (progn
					   (forward-sexp -1)
;; After these keywords `/' starts a RE.  One should add all the
;; functions/builtins which expect an argument, but ...
					     (and
					      (not (memq (preceding-char)
							 '(?$ ?@ ?& ?%)))
					      (looking-at
					       "\\(while\\|if\\|unless\\|until\\|and\\|or\\|not\\|xor\\|split\\|grep\\|map\\|print\\|say\\|return\\)\\>"))))
				    (and (eq (preceding-char) ?.)
					 (eq (char-after (- (point) 2)) ?.))
				    (bobp))
				;; { $a++ / $b } doesn't start a regex, nor does $a--
				(not (and (memq (preceding-char) '(?+ ?-))
					  (eq (preceding-char) (char-before (1- (point))))))
				;;  m|blah| ? foo : bar;
				(not
				 (and (eq c ?\?)
				      cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property
				      (not (bobp))
				      (progn
					(forward-char -1)
					(looking-at "\\s|"))))))
			      b (1- b))
		      ;; s y tr m
		      ;; Check for $a -> y
		      (setq b1 (preceding-char)
			    go (point))
		      (if (and (eq b1 ?>)
			       (eq (char-after (- go 2)) ?-))
			  ;; Not a regexp
			  (setq bb t))))
		(or bb
		    (progn
		      (goto-char b)
		      (if (looking-at "[ \t\n\f]+\\(#[^\n]*\n[ \t\n\f]*\\)+")
			  (goto-char (match-end 0))
			(skip-chars-forward " \t\n\f"))
		      (cond ((and (eq (following-char) ?\})
				  (eq b1 ?\{))
			     ;; Check for $a[23]->{ s }, @{s} and *{s::foo}
			     (goto-char (1- go))
			     (skip-chars-backward " \t\n\f")
			     (if (memq (preceding-char) (append "$@%&*" nil))
				 (setq bb t) ; @{y}
			       (condition-case nil
				   (forward-sexp -1)
				 (error nil)))
			     (if (or bb
				     (looking-at ; $foo -> {s}
				      "[$@]\\$*\\([a-zA-Z0-9_:]+\\|[^{]\\)\\([ \t\n]*->\\)?[ \t\n]*{")
				     (and ; $foo[12] -> {s}
				      (memq (following-char) '(?\{ ?\[))
				      (progn
					(forward-sexp 1)
					(looking-at "\\([ \t\n]*->\\)?[ \t\n]*{"))))
				 (setq bb t)
			       (goto-char b)))
			    ((and (eq (following-char) ?=)
				  (eq (char-after (1+ (point))) ?\>))
			     ;; Check for { foo => 1, s => 2 }
			     ;; Apparently s=> is never a substitution...
			     (setq bb t))
			    ((and (eq (following-char) ?:)
				  (eq b1 ?\{) ; Check for $ { s::bar }
				  (looking-at "::[a-zA-Z0-9_:]*[ \t\n\f]*}")
				  (progn
				    (goto-char (1- go))
				    (skip-chars-backward " \t\n\f")
				    (memq (preceding-char)
					  (append "$@%&*" nil))))
			     (setq bb t))
			    ((eobp)
			     (setq bb t)))))
		(if bb
		    (goto-char i)
		  ;; Skip whitespace and comments...
		  (if (looking-at "[ \t\n\f]+\\(#[^\n]*\n[ \t\n\f]*\\)+")
		      (goto-char (match-end 0))
		    (skip-chars-forward " \t\n\f"))
		  (if (> (point) b)
		      (put-text-property b (point) 'syntax-type 'prestring))
		  ;; qtag means two-arg matcher, may be reset to
		  ;;   2 or 3 later if some special quoting is needed.
		  ;; e1 means matching-char matcher.
		  (setq b (point)	; before the first delimiter
			;; has 2 args
			i2 (string-match "^\\([sy]\\|tr\\)$" argument)
			;; We do not search to max, since we may be called from
			;; some hook of fontification, and max is random
			i (cperl-forward-re stop-point end
					    i2
					    st-l err-l argument)
			;; If `go', then it is considered as 1-arg, `b1' is nil
			;; as in s/foo//x; the point is before final "slash"
			b1 (nth 1 i)	; start of the second part
			tag (nth 2 i)	; ender-char, true if second part
					; is with matching chars []
			go (nth 4 i)	; There is a 1-char part after the end
			i (car i)	; intermediate point
			e1 (point)	; end
			;; Before end of the second part if non-matching: ///
			tail (if (and i (not tag))
				 (1- e1))
			e (if i i e1)	; end of the first part
			qtag nil	; need to preserve backslashitis
			is-x-REx nil is-o-REx nil); REx has //x //o modifiers
		  ;; If s{} (), then b/b1 are at "{", "(", e1/i after ")", "}"
		  ;; Commenting \\ is dangerous, what about ( ?
		  (and i tail
		       (eq (char-after i) ?\\)
		       (setq qtag t))
		  (and (if go (looking-at ".\\sw*x")
			 (looking-at "\\sw*x")) ; qr//x
		       (setq is-x-REx t))
		  (and (if go (looking-at ".\\sw*o")
			 (looking-at "\\sw*o")) ; //o
		       (setq is-o-REx t))
		  (if (null i)
		      ;; Considered as 1arg form
		      (progn
			(cperl-commentify b (point) t)
			(put-text-property b (point) 'syntax-type 'string)
			(if (or is-x-REx
				;; ignore other text properties:
				(string-match "^qw$" argument))
			    (put-text-property b (point) 'indentable t))
			(and go
			     (setq e1 (cperl-1+ e1))
			     (or (eobp)
				 (forward-char 1))))
		    (cperl-commentify b i t)
		    (if (looking-at "\\sw*e") ; s///e
			(progn
			  ;; Cache the syntax info...
			  (setq cperl-syntax-state (cons state-point state))
			  (and
			   ;; silent:
			   (car (cperl-find-pods-heres b1 (1- (point)) t end))
			   ;; Error
			   (goto-char (1+ max)))
			  (if (and tag (eq (preceding-char) ?\>))
			      (progn
				(cperl-modify-syntax-type (1- (point)) cperl-st-ket)
				(cperl-modify-syntax-type i cperl-st-bra)))
			  (put-text-property b i 'syntax-type 'string)
			  (put-text-property i (point) 'syntax-type 'multiline)
			  (if is-x-REx
			      (put-text-property b i 'indentable t)))
		      (cperl-commentify b1 (point) t)
		      (put-text-property b (point) 'syntax-type 'string)
		      (if is-x-REx
			  (put-text-property b i 'indentable t))
		      (if qtag
			  (cperl-modify-syntax-type (1+ i) cperl-st-punct))
		      (setq tail nil)))
		  ;; Now: tail: if the second part is non-matching without ///e
		  (if (eq (char-syntax (following-char)) ?w)
		      (progn
			(forward-word-strictly 1) ; skip modifiers s///s
			(if tail (cperl-commentify tail (point) t))
			(cperl-postpone-fontification
			 e1 (point) 'face my-cperl-REx-modifiers-face)))
		  ;; Check whether it is m// which means "previous match"
		  ;; and highlight differently
		  (setq is-REx
			(and (string-match "^\\([sm]?\\|qr\\)$" argument)
			     (or (not (= (length argument) 0))
				 (not (eq c ?\<)))))
		  (if (and is-REx
			   (eq e (+ 2 b))
			   ;; split // *is* using zero-pattern
			   (save-excursion
			     (condition-case nil
				 (progn
				   (goto-char tb)
				   (forward-sexp -1)
				   (not (looking-at "split\\>")))
			       (error t))))
		      (cperl-postpone-fontification
		       b e 'face font-lock-warning-face)
		    (if (or i2		; Has 2 args
			    (and cperl-fontify-m-as-s
				 (or
				  (string-match "^\\(m\\|qr\\)$" argument)
				  (and (eq 0 (length argument))
				       (not (eq ?\< (char-after b)))))))
			(progn
			  (cperl-postpone-fontification
			   b (cperl-1+ b) 'face my-cperl-delimiters-face)
			  (cperl-postpone-fontification
			   (1- e) e 'face my-cperl-delimiters-face)))
		    (if (and is-REx cperl-regexp-scan)
			;; Process RExen: embedded comments, charclasses and ]
;;;/\3333\xFg\x{FFF}a\ppp\PPP\qqq\C\99f(?{  foo  })(??{  foo  })/;
;;;/a\.b[^a[:ff:]b]x$ab->$[|$,$ab->[cd]->[ef]|$ab[xy].|^${a,b}{c,d}/;
;;;/(?<=foo)(?<!bar)(x)(?:$ab|\$\/)$|\\\b\x888\776\[\:$/xxx;
;;;m?(\?\?{b,a})? + m/(??{aa})(?(?=xx)aa|bb)(?#aac)/;
;;;m$(^ab[c]\$)$ + m+(^ab[c]\$\+)+ + m](^ab[c\]$|.+)] + m)(^ab[c]$|.+\));
;;;m^a[\^b]c^ + m.a[^b]\.c.;
			(save-excursion
			  (goto-char (1+ b))
			  ;; First
			  (cperl-look-at-leading-count is-x-REx e)
			  (setq hairy-RE
				(concat
				 (if is-x-REx
				     (if (eq (char-after b) ?\#)
					 "\\((\\?\\\\#\\)\\|\\(\\\\#\\)"
				       "\\((\\?#\\)\\|\\(#\\)")
				   ;; keep the same count: add a fake group
				   (if (eq (char-after b) ?\#)
				       "\\((\\?\\\\#\\)\\(\\)"
				     "\\((\\?#\\)\\(\\)"))
				 "\\|"
				    "\\(\\[\\)" ; 3=[
				 "\\|"
				    "\\(]\\)" ; 4=]
				 "\\|"
				 ;; XXXX Will not be able to use it in s)))
				 (if (eq (char-after b) ?\) )
				     "\\())))\\)" ; Will never match
				   (if (eq (char-after b) ?? )
				       ;;"\\((\\\\\\?\\(\\\\\\?\\)?{\\)"
				       "\\((\\\\\\?\\\\\\?{\\|()\\\\\\?{\\)"
				     "\\((\\?\\??{\\)")) ; 5= (??{ (?{
				 "\\|"	; 6= 0-length, 7: name, 8,9:code, 10:group
				    "\\(" ;; XXXX 1-char variables, exc. |()\s
				       "[$@]"
				       "\\("
				          "[_a-zA-Z:][_a-zA-Z0-9:]*"
				       "\\|"
				          "{[^{}]*}" ; only one-level allowed
				       "\\|"
				          "[^{(|) \t\r\n\f]"
				       "\\)"
				       "\\(" ;;8,9:code part of array/hash elt
				          "\\(" "->" "\\)?"
				          "\\[[^][]*\\]"
					  "\\|"
				          "{[^{}]*}"
				       "\\)*"
				    ;; XXXX: what if u is delim?
				    "\\|"
				       "[)^|$.*?+]"
				    "\\|"
				       "{[0-9]+}"
				    "\\|"
				       "{[0-9]+,[0-9]*}"
				    "\\|"
				       "\\\\[luLUEQbBAzZG]"
				    "\\|"
				       "(" ; Group opener
				       "\\(" ; 10 group opener follower
				          "\\?\\((\\?\\)" ; 11: in (?(?=C)A|B)
				       "\\|"
				          "\\?[:=!>?{]"	; "?" something
				       "\\|"
				          "\\?[-imsx]+[:)]" ; (?i) (?-s:.)
				       "\\|"
				          "\\?([0-9]+)"	; (?(1)foo|bar)
				       "\\|"
					  "\\?<[=!]"
				       ;;;"\\|"
				       ;;;   "\\?"
				       "\\)?"
				    "\\)"
				 "\\|"
				    "\\\\\\(.\\)" ; 12=\SYMBOL
				 ))
			  (while
			      (and (< (point) (1- e))
				   (re-search-forward hairy-RE (1- e) 'to-end))
			    (goto-char (match-beginning 0))
			    (setq REx-subgr-start (point)
				  was-subgr (following-char))
			    (cond
			     ((match-beginning 6) ; 0-length builtins, groups
			      (goto-char (match-end 0))
			      (if (match-beginning 11)
				  (goto-char (match-beginning 11)))
			      (if (>= (point) e)
				  (goto-char (1- e)))
			      (cperl-postpone-fontification
			       (match-beginning 0) (point)
			       'face
			       (cond
				((eq was-subgr ?\) )
				 (condition-case nil
				     (save-excursion
				       (forward-sexp -1)
				       (if (> (point) b)
					   (if (if (eq (char-after b) ?? )
						   (looking-at "(\\\\\\?")
						 (eq (char-after (1+ (point))) ?\?))
					       my-cperl-REx-0length-face
					     my-cperl-REx-ctl-face)
					 font-lock-warning-face))
				   (error font-lock-warning-face)))
				((eq was-subgr ?\| )
				 my-cperl-REx-ctl-face)
				((eq was-subgr ?\$ )
				 (if (> (point) (1+ REx-subgr-start))
				     (progn
				       (put-text-property
					(match-beginning 0) (point)
					'REx-interpolated
					(if is-o-REx 0
					    (if (and (eq (match-beginning 0)
							 (1+ b))
						     (eq (point)
							 (1- e))) 1 t)))
				       font-lock-variable-name-face)
				   my-cperl-REx-spec-char-face))
				((memq was-subgr (append "^." nil) )
				 my-cperl-REx-spec-char-face)
				((eq was-subgr ?\( )
				 (if (not (match-beginning 10))
				     my-cperl-REx-ctl-face
				   my-cperl-REx-0length-face))
				(t my-cperl-REx-0length-face)))
			      (if (and (memq was-subgr (append "(|" nil))
				       (not (string-match "(\\?[-imsx]+)"
							  (match-string 0))))
				  (cperl-look-at-leading-count is-x-REx e))
			      (setq was-subgr nil)) ; We do stuff here
			     ((match-beginning 12) ; \SYMBOL
			      (forward-char 2)
			      (if (>= (point) e)
				  (goto-char (1- e))
				;; How many chars to not highlight:
				;; 0-len special-alnums in other branch =>
				;; Generic:  \non-alnum (1), \alnum (1+face)
				;; Is-delim: \non-alnum (1/spec-2) alnum-1 (=what hai)
				(setq REx-subgr-start (point)
				      qtag (preceding-char))
				(cperl-postpone-fontification
				 (- (point) 2) (- (point) 1) 'face
				 (if (memq qtag
					   (append "ghijkmoqvFHIJKMORTVY" nil))
				     font-lock-warning-face
				   my-cperl-REx-0length-face))
				(if (and (eq (char-after b) qtag)
					 (memq qtag (append ".])^$|*?+" nil)))
				    (progn
				      (if (and cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property
					       (eq qtag ?\) ))
					  (put-text-property
					   REx-subgr-start (1- (point))
					   'syntax-table cperl-st-punct))
				      (cperl-postpone-fontification
				       (1- (point)) (point) 'face
					; \] can't appear below
				       (if (memq qtag (append ".]^$" nil))
					   'my-cperl-REx-spec-char-face
					 (if (memq qtag (append "*?+" nil))
					     'my-cperl-REx-0length-face
					   'my-cperl-REx-ctl-face))))) ; )|
				;; Test for arguments:
				(cond
				 ;; This is not pretty: the 5.8.7 logic:
				 ;; \0numx  -> octal (up to total 3 dig)
				 ;; \DIGIT  -> backref unless \0
				 ;; \DIGITs -> backref if valid
				 ;;	     otherwise up to 3 -> octal
				 ;; Do not try to distinguish, we guess
				 ((or (and (memq qtag (append "01234567" nil))
					   (re-search-forward
					    "\\=[01234567]?[01234567]?"
					    (1- e) 'to-end))
				      (and (memq qtag (append "89" nil))
					   (re-search-forward
					    "\\=[0123456789]*" (1- e) 'to-end))
				      (and (eq qtag ?x)
					   (re-search-forward
					    "\\=[[:xdigit:]][[:xdigit:]]?\\|\\={[[:xdigit:]]+}"
					    (1- e) 'to-end))
				      (and (memq qtag (append "pPN" nil))
					   (re-search-forward "\\={[^{}]+}\\|."
					    (1- e) 'to-end))
				      (eq (char-syntax qtag) ?w))
				  (cperl-postpone-fontification
				   (1- REx-subgr-start) (point)
				   'face my-cperl-REx-length1-face))))
			      (setq was-subgr nil)) ; We do stuff here
			     ((match-beginning 3) ; [charclass]
			      ;; Highlight leader, trailer, POSIX classes
			      (forward-char 1)
			      (if (eq (char-after b) ?^ )
				  (and (eq (following-char) ?\\ )
				       (eq (char-after (cperl-1+ (point)))
					   ?^ )
				       (forward-char 2))
				(and (eq (following-char) ?^ )
				     (forward-char 1)))
			      (setq argument b ; continue? & end of last POSIX
				    tag nil ; list of POSIX classes
				    qtag (point)) ; after leading ^ if present
			      (if (eq (char-after b) ?\] )
				  (and (eq (following-char) ?\\ )
				       (eq (char-after (cperl-1+ (point)))
					   ?\] )
				       (setq qtag (1+ qtag))
				       (forward-char 2))
				(and (eq (following-char) ?\] )
				     (forward-char 1)))
			      (setq REx-subgr-end qtag)	;End smart-highlighted
			      ;; Apparently, I can't put \] into a charclass
			      ;; in m]]: m][\\\]\]] produces [\\]]
;;;   POSIX?  [:word:] [:^word:] only inside []
;;;	       "\\=\\(\\\\.\\|[^][\\]\\|\\[:\\^?\sw+:]\\|\\[[^:]\\)*]")
			      (while	; look for unescaped ]
				  (and argument
				       (re-search-forward
					(if (eq (char-after b) ?\] )
					    "\\=\\(\\\\[^]]\\|[^]\\]\\)*\\\\]"
					  "\\=\\(\\\\.\\|[^]\\]\\)*]")
					(1- e) 'toend))
				;; Is this ] an end of POSIX class?
				(if (save-excursion
				      (and
				       (search-backward "[" argument t)
				       (< REx-subgr-start (point))
				       (setq argument (point)) ; POSIX-start
				       (or ; Should work with delim = \
					(not (eq (preceding-char) ?\\ ))
					;; XXXX Double \\ is needed with 19.33
					(= (% (skip-chars-backward "\\\\") 2) 0))
				       (looking-at
					(cond
					 ((eq (char-after b) ?\] )
					  "\\\\*\\[:\\^?\\sw+:\\\\\\]")
					 ((eq (char-after b) ?\: )
					  "\\\\*\\[\\\\:\\^?\\sw+\\\\:]")
					 ((eq (char-after b) ?^ )
					  "\\\\*\\[:\\(\\\\\\^\\)?\\sw+:]")
					 ((eq (char-syntax (char-after b))
					      ?w)
					  (concat
					   "\\\\*\\[:\\(\\\\\\^\\)?\\(\\\\"
					   (char-to-string (char-after b))
					   "\\|\\sw\\)+:]"))
					 (t "\\\\*\\[:\\^?\\sw*:]")))
				       (goto-char REx-subgr-end)
				       (cperl-highlight-charclass
					argument my-cperl-REx-spec-char-face
					my-cperl-REx-0length-face my-cperl-REx-length1-face)))
				    (setq tag (cons (cons argument (point))
						    tag)
					  argument (point)
					  REx-subgr-end argument) ; continue
				  (setq argument nil)))
			      (and argument
				   (setq warning-message
                                         (format "Couldn't find end of charclass in a REx, pos=%s"
					         REx-subgr-start)))
			      (setq argument (1- (point)))
			      (goto-char REx-subgr-end)
			      (cperl-highlight-charclass
			       argument my-cperl-REx-spec-char-face
			       my-cperl-REx-0length-face my-cperl-REx-length1-face)
			      (forward-char 1)
			      ;; Highlight starter, trailer, POSIX
			      (if (and cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property
				       (> (- (point) 2) REx-subgr-start))
				  (put-text-property
				   (1+ REx-subgr-start) (1- (point))
				   'syntax-table cperl-st-punct))
			      (cperl-postpone-fontification
			       REx-subgr-start qtag
			       'face my-cperl-REx-spec-char-face)
			      (cperl-postpone-fontification
			       (1- (point)) (point) 'face
			       my-cperl-REx-spec-char-face)
			      (if (eq (char-after b) ?\] )
				  (cperl-postpone-fontification
				   (- (point) 2) (1- (point))
				   'face my-cperl-REx-0length-face))
			      (while tag
				(cperl-postpone-fontification
				 (car (car tag)) (cdr (car tag))
				 'face font-lock-variable-name-face) ;my-cperl-REx-length1-face
				(setq tag (cdr tag)))
			      (setq was-subgr nil)) ; did facing already
			     ;; Now rare stuff:
			     ((and (match-beginning 2) ; #-comment
				   (/= (match-beginning 2) (match-end 2)))
			      (beginning-of-line 2)
			      (if (> (point) e)
				  (goto-char (1- e))))
			     ((match-beginning 4) ; character "]"
			      (setq was-subgr nil) ; We do stuff here
			      (goto-char (match-end 0))
			      (if cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property
				  (put-text-property
				   (1- (point)) (point)
				   'syntax-table cperl-st-punct))
			      (cperl-postpone-fontification
			       (1- (point)) (point)
			       'face font-lock-warning-face))
			     ((match-beginning 5) ; before (?{}) (??{})
			      (setq tag (match-end 0))
			      (if (or (setq qtag
					    (cperl-forward-group-in-re st-l))
				      (and (>= (point) e)
					   (setq qtag "no matching `)' found"))
				      (and (not (eq (char-after (- (point) 2))
						    ?\} ))
					   (setq qtag "Can't find })")))
				  (progn
				    (goto-char (1- e))
				    (setq warning-message
                                          (format "%s" qtag)))
				(cperl-postpone-fontification
				 (1- tag) (1- (point))
				 'face font-lock-variable-name-face)
				(cperl-postpone-fontification
				 REx-subgr-start (1- tag)
				 'face my-cperl-REx-spec-char-face)
				(cperl-postpone-fontification
				 (1- (point)) (point)
				 'face my-cperl-REx-spec-char-face)
				(if cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property
				    (progn
				      (put-text-property
				       (- (point) 2) (1- (point))
				       'syntax-table cperl-st-cfence)
				      (put-text-property
				       (+ REx-subgr-start 2)
				       (+ REx-subgr-start 3)
				       'syntax-table cperl-st-cfence))))
			      (setq was-subgr nil))
			     (t		; (?#)-comment
			      ;; Inside "(" and "\" aren't special in any way
			      ;; Works also if the outside delimiters are ().
			      (or;;(if (eq (char-after b) ?\) )
			       ;;(re-search-forward
			       ;; "[^\\]\\(\\\\\\\\\\)*\\\\)"
			       ;; (1- e) 'toend)
			       (search-forward ")" (1- e) 'toend)
			       ;;)
			       (setq warning-message
				     (format "Couldn't find end of (?#...)-comment in a REx, pos=%s"
				             REx-subgr-start)))))
			    (if (>= (point) e)
				(goto-char (1- e)))
			    (cond
			     (was-subgr
			      (setq REx-subgr-end (point))
			      (cperl-commentify
			       REx-subgr-start REx-subgr-end nil)
			      (cperl-postpone-fontification
			       REx-subgr-start REx-subgr-end
			       'face font-lock-comment-face))))))
		    (if (and is-REx is-x-REx)
			(put-text-property (1+ b) (1- e)
					   'syntax-subtype 'x-REx)))
		  (if (and i2 e1 (or (not b1) (> e1 b1)))
		      (progn		; No errors finding the second part...
			(cperl-postpone-fontification
			 (1- e1) e1 'face my-cperl-delimiters-face)
			(if (and (not (eobp))
				 (assoc (char-after b) cperl-starters))
			    (progn
			      (cperl-postpone-fontification
			       b1 (1+ b1) 'face my-cperl-delimiters-face)
			      (put-text-property b1 (1+ b1)
					   'REx-part2 t)))))
		  (if (> (point) max)
		      (setq tmpend tb))))
	       ((match-beginning 17)	; sub with prototype or attribute
		;; 1+6+2+1+1=11 extra () before this (sub with proto/attr):
		;;"\\<sub\\>\\("			;12
		;;   cperl-white-and-comment-rex	;13
		;;   "\\([a-zA-Z_:'0-9]+\\)\\)?" ; name	;14
		;;"\\(" cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex	;15,16
		;;   "\\(([^()]*)\\|:[^:]\\)\\)" ; 17:proto or attribute start
		(setq b1 (match-beginning 14) e1 (match-end 14))
		(if (memq (char-after (1- b))
			  '(?\$ ?\@ ?\% ?\& ?\*))
		    nil
		  (goto-char b)
		  (if (eq (char-after (match-beginning 17)) ?\( )
		      (progn
			(cperl-commentify ; Prototypes; mark as string
			 (match-beginning 17) (match-end 17) t)
			(goto-char (match-end 0))
			;; Now look for attributes after prototype:
			(forward-comment (buffer-size))
			(and (looking-at ":[^:]")
			     (cperl-find-sub-attrs st-l b1 e1 b)))
		    ;; treat attributes without prototype
		    (goto-char (match-beginning 17))
		    (cperl-find-sub-attrs st-l b1 e1 b))))
	       ;; 1+6+2+1+1+6+1=18 extra () before this:
	       ;;    "\\(\\<sub[ \t\n\f]+\\|[&*$@%]\\)[a-zA-Z0-9_]*'")
	       ((match-beginning 19)	; old $abc'efg syntax
		(setq bb (match-end 0))
		;;;(if (nth 3 state) nil	; in string
		(put-text-property (1- bb) bb 'syntax-table cperl-st-word)
		(goto-char bb))
	       ;; 1+6+2+1+1+6+1+1=19 extra () before this:
	       ;; "__\\(END\\|DATA\\)__"
	       ((match-beginning 20)	; __END__, __DATA__
		(setq bb (match-end 0))
		;; (put-text-property b (1+ bb) 'syntax-type 'pod) ; Cheat
		(cperl-commentify b bb nil)
		(setq end t))
	       ;; "\\\\\\(['`\"($]\\)"
	       ((match-beginning 21)
		;; Trailing backslash; make non-quoting outside string/comment
		(setq bb (match-end 0))
		(goto-char b)
		(skip-chars-backward "\\\\")
		;;;(setq i2 (= (% (skip-chars-backward "\\\\") 2) -1))
		(cperl-modify-syntax-type b cperl-st-punct)
		(goto-char bb))
	       (t (error "Error in regexp of the sniffer")))
	      (if (> (point) stop-point)
		  (progn
		    (if end
			(setq warning-message "Garbage after __END__/__DATA__ ignored")
		      (setq warning-message "Unbalanced syntax found while scanning")
		      (or (car err-l) (setcar err-l b)))
		    (goto-char stop-point))))
	    (setq cperl-syntax-state (cons state-point state)
		  ;; Do not mark syntax as done past tmpend???
		  cperl-syntax-done-to (or tmpend (max (point) max)))
	    ;;(message "state-at=%s, done-to=%s" state-point cperl-syntax-done-to)
	    )
	  (if (car err-l) (goto-char (car err-l))
	    (or non-inter
		(message "Scanning for \"hard\" Perl constructions... done"))))
      (and (buffer-modified-p)
	   (not modified)
	   (set-buffer-modified-p nil))
      ;; I do not understand what this is doing here.  It breaks font-locking
      ;; because it resets the syntax-table from font-lock-syntax-table to
      ;; cperl-mode-syntax-table.
      ;; (set-syntax-table cperl-mode-syntax-table)
      )
    (when warning-message (message warning-message))
    (list (car err-l) overshoot)))

(defun cperl-find-pods-heres-region (min max)
  (interactive "r")
  (cperl-find-pods-heres min max))

(defun cperl-backward-to-noncomment (lim)
  ;; Stops at lim or after non-whitespace that is not in comment
  ;; XXXX Wrongly understands end-of-multiline strings with # as comment
  (let (stop p pr)
    (while (and (not stop) (> (point) (or lim (point-min))))
      (skip-chars-backward " \t\n\f" lim)
      (setq p (point))
      (beginning-of-line)
      (if (memq (setq pr (get-text-property (point) 'syntax-type))
		'(pod here-doc here-doc-delim))
	  (progn
	    (cperl-unwind-to-safe nil)
	    (setq pr (get-text-property (point) 'syntax-type))))
      (or (and (looking-at "^[ \t]*\\(#\\|$\\)")
	       (not (memq pr '(string prestring))))
	  (progn (cperl-to-comment-or-eol) (bolp))
	  (progn
	    (skip-chars-backward " \t")
	    (if (< p (point)) (goto-char p))
	    (setq stop t))))))

;; Used only in `cperl-calculate-indent'...
(defun cperl-block-p ()
  "Point is before ?\\{.  Checks whether it starts a block."
  ;; No save-excursion!  This is more a distinguisher of a block/hash ref...
  (cperl-backward-to-noncomment (point-min))
  (or (memq (preceding-char) (append ";){}$@&%\C-@" nil)) ; Or label!  \C-@ at bobp
					; Label may be mixed up with `$blah :'
      (save-excursion (cperl-after-label))
      (get-text-property (cperl-1- (point)) 'attrib-group)
      (and (memq (char-syntax (preceding-char)) '(?w ?_))
	   (progn
	     (backward-sexp)
	     ;; sub {BLK}, print {BLK} $data, but NOT `bless', `return', `tr', `constant'
	     (or (and (looking-at "[a-zA-Z0-9_:]+[ \t\n\f]*[{#]") ; Method call syntax
		      (not (looking-at "\\(bless\\|return\\|q[wqrx]?\\|tr\\|[smy]\\|constant\\)\\>")))
		 ;; sub bless::foo {}
		 (progn
		   (cperl-backward-to-noncomment (point-min))
		   (and (eq (preceding-char) ?b)
			(progn
			  (forward-sexp -1)
			  (looking-at (concat cperl-sub-regexp "[ \t\n\f#]"))))))))))

;; What is the difference of (cperl-after-block-p lim t) and (cperl-block-p)?
;; No save-excursion; condition-case ...  In (cperl-block-p) the block
;; may be a part of an in-statement construct, such as
;;   ${something()}, print {FH} $data.
;; Moreover, one takes positive approach (looks for else,grep etc)
;; another negative (looks for bless,tr etc)
(defun cperl-after-block-p (lim &optional pre-block)
  "Return true if the preceding } (if PRE-BLOCK, following {) delimits a block.
Would not look before LIM.  Assumes that LIM is a good place to begin a
statement.  The kind of block we treat here is one after which a new
statement would start; thus the block in ${func()} does not count."
  (save-excursion
    (condition-case nil
	(progn
	  (or pre-block (forward-sexp -1))
	  (cperl-backward-to-noncomment lim)
	  (or (eq (point) lim)
	      ;; if () {}   // sub f () {}   // sub f :a(') {}
	      (eq (preceding-char) ?\) )
	      ;; label: {}
	      (save-excursion (cperl-after-label))
	      ;; sub :attr {}
	      (get-text-property (cperl-1- (point)) 'attrib-group)
	      (if (memq (char-syntax (preceding-char)) '(?w ?_)) ; else {}
		  (save-excursion
		    (forward-sexp -1)
		    ;; else {}     but not    else::func {}
		    (or (and (looking-at "\\(else\\|catch\\|try\\|continue\\|grep\\|map\\|BEGIN\\|END\\|UNITCHECK\\|CHECK\\|INIT\\)\\>")
			     (not (looking-at "\\(\\sw\\|_\\)+::")))
			;; sub f {}
			(progn
			  (cperl-backward-to-noncomment lim)
			  (and (cperl-char-ends-sub-keyword-p (preceding-char))
			       (progn
				 (forward-sexp -1)
				 (looking-at
                                  (concat cperl-sub-regexp "[ \t\n\f#]")))))))
		;; What precedes is not word...  XXXX Last statement in sub???
		(cperl-after-expr-p lim))))
      (error nil))))

(defun cperl-after-expr-p (&optional lim chars test)
  "Return true if the position is good for start of expression.
TEST is the expression to evaluate at the found position.  If absent,
CHARS is a string that contains good characters to have before us (however,
`}' is treated \"smartly\" if it is not in the list)."
  (let ((lim (or lim (point-min)))
	stop p)
    (cperl-update-syntaxification (point))
    (save-excursion
      (while (and (not stop) (> (point) lim))
	(skip-chars-backward " \t\n\f" lim)
	(setq p (point))
	(beginning-of-line)
	;;(memq (setq pr (get-text-property (point) 'syntax-type))
	;;      '(pod here-doc here-doc-delim))
	(if (get-text-property (point) 'here-doc-group)
	    (progn
	      (goto-char
	       (cperl-beginning-of-property (point) 'here-doc-group))
	      (beginning-of-line 0)))
	(if (get-text-property (point) 'in-pod)
	    (progn
	      (goto-char
	       (cperl-beginning-of-property (point) 'in-pod))
	      (beginning-of-line 0)))
	(if (looking-at "^[ \t]*\\(#\\|$\\)") nil ; Only comment, skip
	  ;; Else: last iteration, or a label
	  (cperl-to-comment-or-eol)	; Will not move past "." after a format
	  (skip-chars-backward " \t")
	  (if (< p (point)) (goto-char p))
	  (setq p (point))
	  (if (and (eq (preceding-char) ?:)
		   (progn
		     (forward-char -1)
		     (skip-chars-backward " \t\n\f" lim)
		     (memq (char-syntax (preceding-char)) '(?w ?_))))
	      (forward-sexp -1)		; Possibly label.  Skip it
	    (goto-char p)
	    (setq stop t))))
      (or (bobp)			; ???? Needed
	  (eq (point) lim)
	  (looking-at "[ \t]*__\\(END\\|DATA\\)__") ; After this anything goes
	  (progn
	    (if test (eval test)
	      (or (memq (preceding-char) (append (or chars "{;") nil))
		  (and (eq (preceding-char) ?\})
		       (cperl-after-block-p lim))
		  (and (eq (following-char) ?.)	; in format: see comment above
		       (eq (get-text-property (point) 'syntax-type)
			   'format)))))))))

(defun cperl-backward-to-start-of-expr (&optional lim)
  (condition-case nil
      (progn
	(while (and (or (not lim)
			(> (point) lim))
		    (not (cperl-after-expr-p lim)))
	  (forward-sexp -1)
	  ;; May be after $, @, $# etc of a variable
	  (skip-chars-backward "$@%#")))
    (error nil)))

(defun cperl-at-end-of-expr (&optional lim)
  ;; Since the SEXP approach below is very fragile, do some overengineering
  (or (looking-at (concat cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex "[;}]"))
      (condition-case nil
	  (save-excursion
	    ;; If nothing interesting after, does as (forward-sexp -1);
	    ;; otherwise fails, or ends at a start of following sexp.
	    ;; XXXX PROBLEMS: if what follows (after ";") @FOO, or ${bar}
	    ;; may be stuck after @ or $; just put some stupid workaround now:
	    (let ((p (point)))
	      (forward-sexp 1)
	      (forward-sexp -1)
	      (while (memq (preceding-char) (append "%&@$*" nil))
		(forward-char -1))
	      (or (< (point) p)
		  (cperl-after-expr-p lim))))
	(error t))))

(defun cperl-forward-to-end-of-expr (&optional lim)
  (condition-case nil
      (progn
	(while (and (< (point) (or lim (point-max)))
		    (not (cperl-at-end-of-expr)))
	  (forward-sexp 1)))
    (error nil)))

(defun cperl-backward-to-start-of-continued-exp (lim)
  (if (memq (preceding-char) (append ")]}\"'`" nil))
      (forward-sexp -1))
  (beginning-of-line)
  (if (<= (point) lim)
      (goto-char (1+ lim)))
  (skip-chars-forward " \t"))

(defun cperl-after-block-and-statement-beg (lim)
  ;; We assume that we are after ?\}
  (and
   (cperl-after-block-p lim)
   (save-excursion
     (forward-sexp -1)
     (cperl-backward-to-noncomment (point-min))
     (or (bobp)
	 (eq (point) lim)
	 (not (= (char-syntax (preceding-char)) ?w))
	 (progn
	   (forward-sexp -1)
	   (not
	    (looking-at
	     "\\(map\\|grep\\|say\\|printf?\\|system\\|exec\\|tr\\|s\\)\\>")))))))

\f
(defun cperl-indent-exp ()
  "Simple variant of indentation of continued-sexp.

Will not indent comment if it starts at `comment-indent' or looks like
continuation of the comment on the previous line.

If `cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs', will improve spacing on
conditional/loop constructs."
  (interactive)
  (save-excursion
    (let ((tmp-end (point-at-eol)) top done)
      (save-excursion
	(beginning-of-line)
	(while (null done)
	  (setq top (point))
	  ;; Plan A: if line has an unfinished paren-group, go to end-of-group
	  (while (= -1 (nth 0 (parse-partial-sexp (point) tmp-end -1)))
	    (setq top (point)))		; Get the outermost parens in line
	  (goto-char top)
	  (while (< (point) tmp-end)
	    (parse-partial-sexp (point) tmp-end nil t) ; To start-sexp or eol
	    (or (eolp) (forward-sexp 1)))
	  (if (> (point) tmp-end)	; Check for an unfinished block
	      nil
	    (if (eq ?\) (preceding-char))
		;; closing parens can be preceded by up to three sexps
		(progn ;; Plan B: find by REGEXP block followup this line
		  (setq top (point))
		  (condition-case nil
		      (progn
			(forward-sexp -2)
			(if (eq (following-char) ?$ ) ; for my $var (list)
			    (progn
			      (forward-sexp -1)
			      (if (looking-at "\\(state\\|my\\|local\\|our\\)\\>")
				  (forward-sexp -1))))
			(if (looking-at
			     (concat "\\(elsif\\|if\\|unless\\|while\\|until"
				     "\\|for\\(each\\)?\\>\\(\\("
				     cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex
				     "\\(state\\|my\\|local\\|our\\)\\)?"
				     cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex
				     "\\$[_a-zA-Z0-9]+\\)?\\)\\>"))
			    (progn
			      (goto-char top)
			      (forward-sexp 1)
			      (setq top (point)))
			  ;; no block to be processed: expression ends here
			  (setq done t)))
		    (error (setq done t)))
		  (goto-char top))
	      (if (looking-at		; Try Plan C: continuation block
		   (concat cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex
			   "\\<\\(else\\|elsif\\|continue\\)\\>"))
		  (progn
		    (goto-char (match-end 0))
		    (setq tmp-end (point-at-eol)))
		(setq done t))))
	  (setq tmp-end (point-at-eol)))
	(goto-char tmp-end)
	(setq tmp-end (point-marker)))
      (if cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs
	  (cperl-fix-line-spacing tmp-end))
      (cperl-indent-region (point) tmp-end))))

(defun cperl-fix-line-spacing (&optional end parse-data)
  "Improve whitespace in a conditional/loop construct.
Returns some position at the last line."
  (interactive)
  (or end
      (setq end (point-max)))
  (let ((ee (point-at-eol))
	(cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs
	 (or cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs 1))
	p pp ml have-brace ret)
    (save-excursion
      (beginning-of-line)
      (setq ret (point))
      ;;  }? continue
      ;;  blah; }
      (if (not
	   (or (looking-at "[ \t]*\\(els\\(e\\|if\\)\\|continue\\|if\\|while\\|for\\(each\\)?\\|unless\\|until\\)\\_>")
	       (setq have-brace (save-excursion (search-forward "}" ee t)))))
	  nil				; Do not need to do anything
	;; Looking at:
	;; }
	;; else
	(if cperl-merge-trailing-else
	    (if (looking-at
		 "[ \t]*}[ \t]*\n[ \t\n]*\\(els\\(e\\|if\\)\\|continue\\)\\_>")
		(progn
		  (search-forward "}")
		  (setq p (point))
		  (skip-chars-forward " \t\n")
		  (delete-region p (point))
	      (insert (make-string cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs ?\s))
		  (beginning-of-line)))
	  (if (looking-at "[ \t]*}[ \t]*\\(els\\(e\\|if\\)\\|continue\\)\\_>")
	      (save-excursion
		  (search-forward "}")
		  (delete-horizontal-space)
		  (insert "\n")
		  (setq ret (point))
		  (if (cperl-indent-line parse-data)
		      (progn
			(cperl-fix-line-spacing end parse-data)
			(setq ret (point)))))))
	;; Looking at:
	;; }     else
	(if (looking-at "[ \t]*}\\(\t*\\|[ \t][ \t]+\\)\\<\\(els\\(e\\|if\\)\\|continue\\)\\_>")
	    (progn
	      (search-forward "}")
	      (delete-horizontal-space)
	      (insert (make-string cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs ?\s))
	      (beginning-of-line)))
	;; Looking at:
	;; else   {
	(if (looking-at
	     "[ \t]*}?[ \t]*\\<\\(els\\(e\\|if\\)\\|continue\\|unless\\|if\\|while\\|for\\(each\\)?\\|until\\)\\>\\(\t*\\|[ \t][ \t]+\\)[^ \t\n#]")
	    (progn
	      (forward-word-strictly 1)
	      (delete-horizontal-space)
	      (insert (make-string cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs ?\s))
	      (beginning-of-line)))
	;; Looking at:
	;; foreach my    $var
	(if (looking-at
	     "[ \t]*\\<for\\(each\\)?[ \t]+\\(state\\|my\\|local\\|our\\)\\(\t*\\|[ \t][ \t]+\\)[^ \t\n]")
	    (progn
	      (forward-word-strictly 2)
	      (delete-horizontal-space)
	      (insert (make-string cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs ?\s))
	      (beginning-of-line)))
	;; Looking at:
	;; foreach my $var     (
	(if (looking-at
	     "[ \t]*\\<for\\(each\\)?[ \t]+\\(state\\|my\\|local\\|our\\)[ \t]*\\$[_a-zA-Z0-9]+\\(\t*\\|[ \t][ \t]+\\)[^ \t\n#]")
	    (progn
	      (forward-sexp 3)
	      (delete-horizontal-space)
	      (insert
	       (make-string cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs ?\s))
	      (beginning-of-line)))
	;; Looking at (with or without "}" at start, ending after "({"):
	;; } foreach my $var ()         OR   {
	(if (looking-at
	     "[ \t]*\\(}[ \t]*\\)?\\<\\(els\\(e\\|if\\)\\|continue\\|if\\|unless\\|while\\|for\\(each\\)?\\(\\([ \t]+\\(state\\|my\\|local\\|our\\)\\)?[ \t]*\\$[_a-zA-Z0-9]+\\)?\\|until\\)\\>\\([ \t]*(\\|[ \t\n]*{\\)\\|[ \t]*{")
	    (progn
	      (setq ml (match-beginning 8)) ; "(" or "{" after control word
	      (re-search-forward "[({]")
	      (forward-char -1)
	      (setq p (point))
	      (if (eq (following-char) ?\( )
		  (progn
		    (forward-sexp 1)
		    (setq pp (point)))	; past parenthesis-group
		;; after `else' or nothing
		(if ml			; after `else'
		    (skip-chars-backward " \t\n")
		  (beginning-of-line))
		(setq pp nil))
	      ;; Now after the sexp before the brace
	      ;; Multiline expr should be special
	      (setq ml (and pp (save-excursion (goto-char p)
					       (search-forward "\n" pp t))))
	      (if (and (or (not pp) (< pp end))	; Do not go too far...
		       (looking-at "[ \t\n]*{"))
		  (progn
		    (cond
		     ((bolp)		; Were before `{', no if/else/etc
		      nil)
		     ((looking-at "\\(\t*\\| [ \t]+\\){") ; Not exactly 1 SPACE
		      (delete-horizontal-space)
		      (if (if ml
			      cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline
			    cperl-extra-newline-before-brace)
			  (progn
			    (delete-horizontal-space)
			    (insert "\n")
			    (setq ret (point))
			    (if (cperl-indent-line parse-data)
				(progn
				  (cperl-fix-line-spacing end parse-data)
				  (setq ret (point)))))
			(insert
			 (make-string cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs ?\s))))
		     ((and (looking-at "[ \t]*\n")
			   (not (if ml
				    cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline
				  cperl-extra-newline-before-brace)))
		      (setq pp (point))
		      (skip-chars-forward " \t\n")
		      (delete-region pp (point))
		      (insert
		       (make-string cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs ?\ )))
		     ((and (looking-at "[\t ]*{")
			   (if ml cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline
			     cperl-extra-newline-before-brace))
		      (delete-horizontal-space)
		      (insert "\n")
		      (setq ret (point))
		      (if (cperl-indent-line parse-data)
			  (progn
			    (cperl-fix-line-spacing end parse-data)
			    (setq ret (point))))))
		    ;; Now we are before `{'
		    (if (looking-at "[ \t\n]*{[ \t]*[^ \t\n#]")
			(progn
			  (skip-chars-forward " \t\n")
			  (setq pp (point))
			  (forward-sexp 1)
			  (setq p (point))
			  (goto-char pp)
			  (setq ml (search-forward "\n" p t))
			  (if (or cperl-break-one-line-blocks-when-indent ml)
			      ;; not good: multi-line BLOCK
			      (progn
				(goto-char (1+ pp))
				(delete-horizontal-space)
				(insert "\n")
				(setq ret (point))
				(if (cperl-indent-line parse-data)
				    (setq ret (cperl-fix-line-spacing end parse-data)))))))))))
	(beginning-of-line)
	(setq p (point) pp (point-at-eol)) ; May be different from ee.
	;; Now check whether there is a hanging `}'
	;; Looking at:
	;; } blah
	(if (and
	     cperl-fix-hanging-brace-when-indent
	     have-brace
	     (not (looking-at "[ \t]*}[ \t]*\\(\\<\\(els\\(if\\|e\\)\\|continue\\|while\\|until\\)\\>\\|$\\|#\\)"))
	     (condition-case nil
		 (progn
		   (up-list 1)
		   (if (and (<= (point) pp)
			    (eq (preceding-char) ?\} )
			    (cperl-after-block-and-statement-beg (point-min)))
		       t
		     (goto-char p)
		     nil))
	       (error nil)))
	    (progn
	      (forward-char -1)
	      (skip-chars-backward " \t")
	      (if (bolp)
		  ;; `}' was the first thing on the line, insert NL *after* it.
		  (progn
		    (cperl-indent-line parse-data)
		    (search-forward "}")
		    (delete-horizontal-space)
		    (insert "\n"))
		(delete-horizontal-space)
		(or (eq (preceding-char) ?\;)
		    (bolp)
		    (and (eq (preceding-char) ?\} )
			 (cperl-after-block-p (point-min)))
		    (insert ";"))
		(insert "\n")
		(setq ret (point)))
	      (if (cperl-indent-line parse-data)
		  (setq ret (cperl-fix-line-spacing end parse-data)))
	      (beginning-of-line)))))
    ret))

(defvar cperl-update-start)		; Do not need to make them local
(defvar cperl-update-end)
(defun cperl-delay-update-hook (beg end _old-len)
  (setq cperl-update-start (min beg (or cperl-update-start (point-max))))
  (setq cperl-update-end (max end (or cperl-update-end (point-min)))))

(defun cperl-indent-region (start end)
  "Simple variant of indentation of region in CPerl mode.
Should be slow.  Will not indent comment if it starts at `comment-indent'
or looks like continuation of the comment on the previous line.
Indents all the lines whose first character is between START and END
inclusive.

If `cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs', will improve spacing on
conditional/loop constructs."
  (interactive "r")
  (cperl-update-syntaxification end)
  (save-excursion
    (let (cperl-update-start cperl-update-end (h-a-c after-change-functions))
      (let ((indent-info (list nil nil nil)	; Cannot use '(), since will modify
			 )
	    after-change-functions	; Speed it up!
	    comm old-comm-indent new-comm-indent i empty)
	(if h-a-c (add-hook 'after-change-functions #'cperl-delay-update-hook))
	(goto-char start)
	(setq old-comm-indent (and (cperl-to-comment-or-eol)
				   (current-column))
	      new-comm-indent old-comm-indent)
	(goto-char start)
	(setq end (set-marker (make-marker) end)) ; indentation changes pos
	(or (bolp) (beginning-of-line 2))
	(while (and (<= (point) end) (not (eobp))) ; bol to check start
	  (if (or
	       (setq empty (looking-at "[ \t]*\n"))
	       (and (setq comm (looking-at "[ \t]*#"))
		    (or (eq (current-indentation) (or old-comm-indent
						      comment-column))
			(setq old-comm-indent nil))))
	      (if (and old-comm-indent
		       (not empty)
		       (= (current-indentation) old-comm-indent)
		       (not (eq (get-text-property (point) 'syntax-type) 'pod))
		       (not (eq (get-text-property (point) 'syntax-table)
				cperl-st-cfence)))
		  (let ((comment-column new-comm-indent))
		    (indent-for-comment)))
	    (progn
	      (setq i (cperl-indent-line indent-info))
	      (or comm
		  (not i)
		  (progn
		    (if cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs
			(goto-char (cperl-fix-line-spacing end indent-info)))
		    (if (setq old-comm-indent
			      (and (cperl-to-comment-or-eol)
				   (not (memq (get-text-property (point)
								 'syntax-type)
					      '(pod here-doc)))
				   (not (eq (get-text-property (point)
							       'syntax-table)
					    cperl-st-cfence))
				   (current-column)))
			(progn (indent-for-comment)
			       (skip-chars-backward " \t")
			       (skip-chars-backward "#")
			       (setq new-comm-indent (current-column))))))))
	  (beginning-of-line 2)))
      ;; Now run the update hooks
      (and after-change-functions
	   cperl-update-end
	   (save-excursion
	     (goto-char cperl-update-end)
	     (insert " ")
	     (delete-char -1)
	     (goto-char cperl-update-start)
	     (insert " ")
	     (delete-char -1))))))

;; Stolen from lisp-mode with a lot of improvements

(defun cperl-fill-paragraph (&optional justify iteration)
  "Like `fill-paragraph', but handle CPerl comments.
If any of the current line is a comment, fill the comment or the
block of it that point is in, preserving the comment's initial
indentation and initial hashes.  Behaves usually outside of comment."
  ;; (interactive "P") ; Only works when called from fill-paragraph.  -stef
  (let (;; Non-nil if the current line contains a comment.
	has-comment
	fill-paragraph-function		; do not recurse
	;; If has-comment, the appropriate fill-prefix for the comment.
	comment-fill-prefix
	;; Line that contains code and comment (or nil)
	start
	c spaces len dc (comment-column comment-column))
    ;; Figure out what kind of comment we are looking at.
    (save-excursion
      (beginning-of-line)
      (cond

       ;; A line with nothing but a comment on it?
       ((looking-at "[ \t]*#[# \t]*")
	(setq has-comment t
	      comment-fill-prefix (buffer-substring (match-beginning 0)
						    (match-end 0))))

       ;; A line with some code, followed by a comment?  Remember that the
       ;; semi which starts the comment shouldn't be part of a string or
       ;; character.
       ((cperl-to-comment-or-eol)
	(setq has-comment t)
	(looking-at "#+[ \t]*")
	(setq start (point) c (current-column)
	      comment-fill-prefix
	      (concat (make-string (current-column) ?\s)
		      (buffer-substring (match-beginning 0) (match-end 0)))
	      spaces (progn (skip-chars-backward " \t")
			    (buffer-substring (point) start))
	      dc (- c (current-column)) len (- start (point))
	      start (point-marker))
	(delete-char len)
	(insert (make-string dc ?-)))))	; Placeholder (to avoid splitting???)
    (if (not has-comment)
	(fill-paragraph justify)       ; Do the usual thing outside of comment
      ;; Narrow to include only the comment, and then fill the region.
      (save-restriction
	(narrow-to-region
	 ;; Find the first line we should include in the region to fill.
	 (if start (progn (beginning-of-line) (point))
	   (save-excursion
	     (while (and (zerop (forward-line -1))
			 (looking-at "^[ \t]*#+[ \t]*[^ \t\n#]")))
	     ;; We may have gone to far.  Go forward again.
	     (or (looking-at "^[ \t]*#+[ \t]*[^ \t\n#]")
		 (forward-line 1))
	     (point)))
	 ;; Find the beginning of the first line past the region to fill.
	 (save-excursion
	   (while (progn (forward-line 1)
			 (looking-at "^[ \t]*#+[ \t]*[^ \t\n#]")))
	   (point)))
	;; Remove existing hashes
	(goto-char (point-min))
	(save-excursion
	  (while (progn (forward-line 1) (< (point) (point-max)))
	    (skip-chars-forward " \t")
	    (if (looking-at "#+")
		(progn
		  (if (and (eq (point) (match-beginning 0))
			   (not (eq (point) (match-end 0)))) nil
		    (error
 "Bug in Emacs: `looking-at' in `narrow-to-region': match-data is garbage"))
		(delete-char (- (match-end 0) (match-beginning 0)))))))

	;; Lines with only hashes on them can be paragraph boundaries.
	(let ((paragraph-start (concat paragraph-start "\\|^[ \t#]*$"))
	      (paragraph-separate (concat paragraph-start "\\|^[ \t#]*$"))
	      (fill-prefix comment-fill-prefix))
	  (fill-paragraph justify)))
      (if (and start)
	  (progn
	    (goto-char start)
	    (if (> dc 0)
		(progn (delete-char dc) (insert spaces)))
	    (if (or (= (current-column) c) iteration) nil
	      (setq comment-column c)
	      (indent-for-comment)
	      ;; Repeat once more, flagging as iteration
	      (cperl-fill-paragraph justify t))))))
  t)

(defun cperl-do-auto-fill ()
  ;; Break out if the line is short enough
  (if (> (save-excursion
	   (end-of-line)
	   (current-column))
	 fill-column)
      (let ((c (save-excursion (beginning-of-line)
			       (cperl-to-comment-or-eol) (point)))
	    (s (memq (following-char) '(?\s ?\t))) marker)
	(if (>= c (point))
	    ;; Don't break line inside code: only inside comment.
	    nil
	  (setq marker (point-marker))
	  (fill-paragraph nil)
	  (goto-char marker)
	  ;; Is not enough, sometimes marker is a start of line
	  (if (bolp) (progn (re-search-forward "#+[ \t]*")
			    (goto-char (match-end 0))))
	  ;; Following space could have gone:
	  (if (or (not s) (memq (following-char) '(?\s ?\t))) nil
	    (insert " ")
	    (backward-char 1))
	  ;; Previous space could have gone:
	  (or (memq (preceding-char) '(?\s ?\t)) (insert " "))))))

(defun cperl-imenu--create-perl-index ()
  "Implement `imenu-create-index-function` for CPerl mode.
This function relies on syntaxification to exclude lines which
look like declarations but actually are part of a string, a
comment, or POD."
  (interactive) ; We'll remove that at some point
  (goto-char (point-min))
  (cperl-update-syntaxification (point-max))
  (let ((case-fold-search nil)
	(index-alist '())
	(index-package-alist '())
	(index-pod-alist '())
	(index-sub-alist '())
	(index-unsorted-alist '())
	(package-stack '())                 ; for package NAME BLOCK
	(current-package "(main)")
	(current-package-end (point-max)))   ; end of package scope
    ;; collect index entries
    (while (re-search-forward cperl--imenu-entries-regexp nil t)
      ;; First, check whether we have left the scope of previously
      ;; recorded packages, and if so, eliminate them from the stack.
      (while (< current-package-end (point))
	(setq current-package (pop package-stack))
	(setq current-package-end (pop package-stack)))
      (let ((state (syntax-ppss))
	    name marker) ; for the "current" entry
	(cond
	 ((nth 3 state) nil)            ; matched in a string, so skip
	 ((match-string 1)              ; found a package name!
	  (unless (nth 4 state)         ; skip if in a comment
	    (setq name (match-string-no-properties 1)
		  marker (copy-marker (match-end 1)))
	    (if  (string= (match-string 3) ";")
		(setq current-package name)  ; package NAME;
	      ;; No semicolon, therefore we have: package NAME BLOCK.
	      ;; Stash the current package, because we need to restore
	      ;; it after the end of BLOCK.
	      (push current-package-end package-stack)
	      (push current-package package-stack)
	      ;; record the current name and its scope
	      (setq current-package name)
	      (setq current-package-end (save-excursion
					  (goto-char (match-beginning 3))
					  (forward-sexp)
					  (point)))
	    (push (cons name marker) index-package-alist)
	    (push (cons (concat "package " name) marker) index-unsorted-alist))))
	 ((match-string 5)              ; found a sub name!
	  (unless (nth 4 state)         ; skip if in a comment
	    (setq name (match-string-no-properties 5)
		  marker (copy-marker (match-end 5)))
	    ;; Qualify the sub name with the package if it doesn't
	    ;; already have one, and if it isn't lexically scoped.
	    ;; "my" and "state" subs are lexically scoped, but "our"
	    ;; are just lexical aliases to package subs.
	    (if (and (null (string-match "::" name))
		     (or (null (match-string 4))
			 (string-equal (match-string 4) "our")))
	      (setq name (concat current-package "::" name)))
	    (let ((index (cons name marker)))
	      (push index index-alist)
	      (push index index-sub-alist)
	      (push index index-unsorted-alist))))
	 ((match-string 6)              ; found a POD heading!
	  (when (get-text-property (match-beginning 6) 'in-pod)
	    (setq name (concat (make-string
				(* 3 (- (char-after (match-beginning 6)) ?1))
				?\ )
			       (match-string-no-properties 7))
		  marker (copy-marker (match-beginning 7)))
	    (push (cons name marker) index-pod-alist)
	    (push (cons (concat "=" name) marker) index-unsorted-alist)))
	 (t (error "Unidentified match: %s" (match-string 0))))))
    ;; Now format the collected stuff
    (setq index-alist
	  (if (default-value 'imenu-sort-function)
	      (sort index-alist (default-value 'imenu-sort-function))
	    (nreverse index-alist)))
    (and index-pod-alist
	 (push (cons "+POD headers+..."
		     (nreverse index-pod-alist))
	       index-alist))
    (and (or index-package-alist index-sub-alist)
	 (let ((lst index-package-alist) hier-list pack elt group name)
	   ;; reverse and uniquify.
	   (while lst
	     (setq elt (car lst) lst (cdr lst) name (car elt))
	     (if (assoc name hier-list) nil
	       (setq hier-list (cons (cons name (cdr elt)) hier-list))))
	   (setq lst index-sub-alist)
	   (while lst
	     (setq elt (car lst) lst (cdr lst))
	     (cond ((string-match "\\(::\\|'\\)[_a-zA-Z0-9]+$" (car elt))
		    (setq pack (substring (car elt) 0 (match-beginning 0)))
		    (if (setq group (assoc pack hier-list))
			(if (listp (cdr group))
			    ;; Have some functions already
			    (setcdr group
				    (cons (cons (substring
						 (car elt)
						 (+ 2 (match-beginning 0)))
						(cdr elt))
					  (cdr group)))
			  (setcdr group (list (cons (substring
						     (car elt)
						     (+ 2 (match-beginning 0)))
						    (cdr elt)))))
		      (setq hier-list
			    (cons (cons pack
					(list (cons (substring
						     (car elt)
						     (+ 2 (match-beginning 0)))
						    (cdr elt))))
				  hier-list))))))
	   (push (cons "+Hierarchy+..."
		       hier-list)
		 index-alist)))
    (and index-package-alist
	 (push (cons "+Packages+..."
		     (nreverse index-package-alist))
	       index-alist))
    (and (or index-package-alist index-pod-alist
	     (default-value 'imenu-sort-function))
	 index-unsorted-alist
	 (push (cons "+Unsorted List+..."
		     (nreverse index-unsorted-alist))
	       index-alist))
    ;; Finally, return the whole collection
    index-alist))

\f
;; Suggested by Mark A. Hershberger
(defun cperl-outline-level ()
  (looking-at outline-regexp)
  (cond ((not (match-beginning 1)) 0)	; beginning-of-file
        ;; 2=package-group, 5=package-name 8=sub-name 16=head-level
	((match-beginning 2) 0)		; package
	((match-beginning 8) 1)		; sub
	((match-beginning 16)
	 (- (char-after (match-beginning 16)) ?0)) ; headN ==> N
	(t 5)))				; should not happen

\f
(defun cperl-windowed-init ()
  "Initialization under windowed version."
  (cond ((featurep 'ps-print)
	 (or cperl-faces-init
	     (progn
	       (setq cperl-font-lock-multiline t)
	       (cperl-init-faces))))
	((not cperl-faces-init)
	 (add-hook 'font-lock-mode-hook
                   (lambda ()
                     (if (memq major-mode '(perl-mode cperl-mode))
                         (progn
                           (or cperl-faces-init (cperl-init-faces))))))
	 (eval-after-load
	     "ps-print"
	   '(or cperl-faces-init (cperl-init-faces))))))

(defvar cperl-font-lock-keywords-1 nil
  "Additional expressions to highlight in Perl mode.  Minimal set.")
(defvar cperl-font-lock-keywords nil
  "Additional expressions to highlight in Perl mode.  Default set.")
(defvar cperl-font-lock-keywords-2 nil
  "Additional expressions to highlight in Perl mode.  Maximal set")

(defun cperl-load-font-lock-keywords ()
  (or cperl-faces-init (cperl-init-faces))
  cperl-font-lock-keywords)

(defun cperl-load-font-lock-keywords-1 ()
  (or cperl-faces-init (cperl-init-faces))
  cperl-font-lock-keywords-1)

(defun cperl-load-font-lock-keywords-2 ()
  (or cperl-faces-init (cperl-init-faces))
  cperl-font-lock-keywords-2)

(defun cperl-init-faces ()
  (condition-case errs
      (progn
	(let (t-font-lock-keywords t-font-lock-keywords-1 font-lock-anchored)
	  (setq font-lock-anchored t)
	  (setq
	   t-font-lock-keywords
	   (list
	    `("[ \t]+$" 0 ',cperl-invalid-face t)
	    (cons
	     (concat
	      "\\(^\\|[^$@%&\\]\\)\\<\\("
              (regexp-opt
	       (append
                cperl-sub-keywords
                '("if" "until" "while" "elsif" "else"
                  "given" "when" "default" "break"
                  "unless" "for"
                  "try" "catch" "finally"
                  "foreach" "continue" "exit" "die" "last" "goto" "next"
                  "redo" "return" "local" "exec"
                  "do" "dump"
                  "use" "our"
                  "require" "package" "eval" "evalbytes" "my" "state"
                  "BEGIN" "END" "CHECK" "INIT" "UNITCHECK"))) ; Flow control
	      "\\)\\>") 2)		; was "\\)[ \n\t;():,|&]"
					; In what follows we use `type' style
					; for overwritable builtins
	    (list
	     (concat
	      "\\(^\\|[^$@%&\\]\\)\\<\\("
              (regexp-opt
               '("CORE" "__FILE__" "__LINE__" "__SUB__" "__PACKAGE__"
                 "abs" "accept" "alarm" "and" "atan2"
                 "bind" "binmode" "bless" "caller"
                 "chdir" "chmod" "chown" "chr" "chroot" "close"
                 "closedir" "cmp" "connect" "continue" "cos" "crypt"
                 "dbmclose" "dbmopen" "die" "dump" "endgrent"
                 "endhostent" "endnetent" "endprotoent" "endpwent"
                 "endservent" "eof" "eq" "exec" "exit" "exp" "fc" "fcntl"
                 "fileno" "flock" "fork" "formline" "ge" "getc"
                 "getgrent" "getgrgid" "getgrnam" "gethostbyaddr"
                 "gethostbyname" "gethostent" "getlogin"
                 "getnetbyaddr" "getnetbyname" "getnetent"
                 "getpeername" "getpgrp" "getppid" "getpriority"
                 "getprotobyname" "getprotobynumber" "getprotoent"
                 "getpwent" "getpwnam" "getpwuid" "getservbyname"
                 "getservbyport" "getservent" "getsockname"
                 "getsockopt" "glob" "gmtime" "gt" "hex" "index" "int"
                 "ioctl" "join" "kill" "lc" "lcfirst" "le" "length"
                 "link" "listen" "localtime" "lock" "log" "lstat" "lt"
                 "mkdir" "msgctl" "msgget" "msgrcv" "msgsnd" "ne"
                 "not" "oct" "open" "opendir" "or" "ord" "pack" "pipe"
                 "quotemeta" "rand" "read" "readdir" "readline"
                 "readlink" "readpipe" "recv" "ref" "rename" "require"
                 "reset" "reverse" "rewinddir" "rindex" "rmdir" "seek"
                 "seekdir" "select" "semctl" "semget" "semop" "send"
                 "setgrent" "sethostent" "setnetent" "setpgrp"
                 "setpriority" "setprotoent" "setpwent" "setservent"
                 "setsockopt" "shmctl" "shmget" "shmread" "shmwrite"
                 "shutdown" "sin" "sleep" "socket" "socketpair"
                 "sprintf" "sqrt" "srand" "stat" "substr" "symlink"
                 "syscall" "sysopen" "sysread" "sysseek" "system" "syswrite" "tell"
                 "telldir" "time" "times" "truncate" "uc" "ucfirst"
                 "umask" "unlink" "unpack" "utime" "values" "vec"
                 "wait" "waitpid" "wantarray" "warn" "write" "x" "xor"))
              "\\)\\>")
             2 'font-lock-type-face)
	    ;; In what follows we use `other' style
	    ;; for nonoverwritable builtins
	    (list
	     (concat
	      "\\(^\\|[^$@%&\\]\\)\\<\\("
              (regexp-opt
               '("AUTOLOAD" "BEGIN" "CHECK" "DESTROY" "END" "INIT" "UNITCHECK"
                 "__END__" "__DATA__" "break" "catch" "chomp" "chop" "default"
                 "defined" "delete" "do" "each" "else" "elsif" "eval"
                 "evalbytes" "exists" "finally" "for" "foreach" "format" "given"
                 "goto" "grep" "if" "keys" "last" "local" "m" "map" "my" "next"
                 "no" "our" "package" "pop" "pos" "print" "printf" "prototype"
                 "push" "q" "qq" "qr" "qw" "qx" "redo" "return" "s" "say" "scalar"
                 "shift" "sort" "splice" "split" "state" "study" "sub" "tie"
                 "tied" "tr" "try" "undef" "unless" "unshift" "untie" "until"
                 "use" "when" "while" "y"))
              "\\)\\>")
	     2 ''cperl-nonoverridable-face) ; unbound as var, so: doubly quoted
	    ;;		(mapconcat #'identity
	    ;;			   '("#endif" "#else" "#ifdef" "#ifndef" "#if"
	    ;;			     "#include" "#define" "#undef")
	    ;;			   "\\|")
	    '("-[rwxoRWXOezsfdlpSbctugkTBMAC]\\>\\([ \t]+_\\>\\)?" 0
	      font-lock-function-name-face keep) ; Not very good, triggers at "[a-z]"
	    ;; This highlights declarations and definitions differently.
	    ;; We do not try to highlight in the case of attributes:
	    ;; it is already done by `cperl-find-pods-heres'
	    (list (concat "\\<" cperl-sub-regexp
			  cperl-white-and-comment-rex ; whitespace/comments
			  "\\([^ \n\t{;()]+\\)" ; 2=name (assume non-anonymous)
			  "\\("
			    cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex ;whitespace/comments?
			    "([^()]*)\\)?" ; prototype
			  cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex ; whitespace/comments?
			  "[{;]")
		  2 (if cperl-font-lock-multiline
			'(if (eq (char-after (cperl-1- (match-end 0))) ?\{ )
			     'font-lock-function-name-face
			   'font-lock-variable-name-face)
		      ;; need to manually set 'multiline' for older font-locks
		      '(progn
			 (if (< 1 (count-lines (match-beginning 0)
					       (match-end 0)))
			     (put-text-property
			      (+ 3 (match-beginning 0)) (match-end 0)
			      'syntax-type 'multiline))
			 (if (eq (char-after (cperl-1- (match-end 0))) ?\{ )
			     'font-lock-function-name-face
			   'font-lock-variable-name-face))))
	    '("\\<\\(package\\|require\\|use\\|import\\|no\\|bootstrap\\)[ \t]+\\([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9:]*\\)[ \t;]" ; require A if B;
	      2 font-lock-function-name-face)
	    '("^[ \t]*format[ \t]+\\([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9:]*\\)[ \t]*=[ \t]*$"
	      1 font-lock-function-name-face)
	    (cond (font-lock-anchored
		   '("\\([]}\\%@>*&]\\|\\$[a-zA-Z0-9_:]*\\)[ \t]*{[ \t]*\\(-?[a-zA-Z0-9_:]+\\)[ \t]*}"
		     (2 font-lock-string-face t)
		     ("\\=[ \t]*{[ \t]*\\(-?[a-zA-Z0-9_:]+\\)[ \t]*}"
		      nil nil
		      (1 font-lock-string-face t))))
		  (t '("\\([]}\\%@>*&]\\|\\$[a-zA-Z0-9_:]*\\)[ \t]*{[ \t]*\\(-?[a-zA-Z0-9_:]+\\)[ \t]*}"
		       2 font-lock-string-face t)))
	    '("[[ \t{,(]\\(-?[a-zA-Z0-9_:]+\\)[ \t]*=>" 1
	      font-lock-string-face t)
	    '("^[ \t]*\\([a-zA-Z0-9_]+[ \t]*:\\)[ \t]*\\($\\|{\\|\\<\\(until\\|while\\|for\\(each\\)?\\|do\\)\\>\\)" 1
	      font-lock-constant-face)	; labels
	    '("\\<\\(continue\\|next\\|last\\|redo\\|break\\|goto\\)\\>[ \t]+\\([a-zA-Z0-9_:]+\\)" ; labels as targets
	      2 font-lock-constant-face)
	    ;; Uncomment to get perl-mode-like vars
            ;;; '("[$*]{?\\(\\sw+\\)" 1 font-lock-variable-name-face)
            ;;; '("\\([@%]\\|\\$#\\)\\(\\sw+\\)"
            ;;;  (2 (cons font-lock-variable-name-face '(underline))))
	    (cond (font-lock-anchored
		   ;; 1=my_etc, 2=white? 3=(+white? 4=white? 5=var
		   `(,(concat "\\<\\(state\\|my\\|local\\|our\\)"
				  cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex
				  "\\(("
				     cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex
				  "\\)?\\([$@%*]\\([a-zA-Z0-9_:]+\\|[^a-zA-Z0-9_]\\)\\)")
		       (5 ,(if cperl-font-lock-multiline
				 'font-lock-variable-name-face
			       '(progn  (setq cperl-font-lock-multiline-start
					      (match-beginning 0))
					'font-lock-variable-name-face)))
		       (,(concat "\\="
				   cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex
				   ","
				   cperl-maybe-white-and-comment-rex
				   "\\([$@%*]\\([a-zA-Z0-9_:]+\\|[^a-zA-Z0-9_]\\)\\)")
			;; Bug in font-lock: limit is used not only to limit
			;; searches, but to set the "extend window for
			;; facification" property.  Thus we need to minimize.
			,(if cperl-font-lock-multiline
			     '(if (match-beginning 3)
				  (save-excursion
				    (goto-char (match-beginning 3))
				    (condition-case nil
					(forward-sexp 1)
				      (error
				       (condition-case nil
					   (forward-char 200)
					 (error nil)))) ; typeahead
				    (1- (point))) ; report limit
				(forward-char -2)) ; disable continued expr
			     '(if (match-beginning 3)
				  (point-max) ; No limit for continuation
				(forward-char -2))) ; disable continued expr
			,(if cperl-font-lock-multiline
			       nil
			     '(progn	; Do at end
				;; "my" may be already fontified (POD),
				;; so cperl-font-lock-multiline-start is nil
				(if (or (not cperl-font-lock-multiline-start)
					(> 2 (count-lines
					      cperl-font-lock-multiline-start
					      (point))))
				    nil
				  (put-text-property
				   (1+ cperl-font-lock-multiline-start) (point)
				   'syntax-type 'multiline))
				(setq cperl-font-lock-multiline-start nil)))
			(3 font-lock-variable-name-face))))
		  (t '("^[ \t{}]*\\(state\\|my\\|local\\|our\\)[ \t]*\\(([ \t]*\\)?\\([$@%*][a-zA-Z0-9_:]+\\)"
		       3 font-lock-variable-name-face)))
	    '("\\<for\\(each\\)?\\([ \t]+\\(state\\|my\\|local\\|our\\)\\)?[ \t]*\\(\\$[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*\\)[ \t]*("
	      4 font-lock-variable-name-face)
	    ;; Avoid $!, and s!!, qq!! etc. when not fontifying syntactically
	    '("\\(?:^\\|[^smywqrx$]\\)\\(!\\)" 1 font-lock-negation-char-face)
	    '("\\[\\(\\^\\)" 1 font-lock-negation-char-face prepend)))
	  (setq
	   t-font-lock-keywords-1
	   '(
	     ("\\(\\([@%]\\|\\$#\\)[a-zA-Z_:][a-zA-Z0-9_:]*\\)" 1
	      (if (eq (char-after (match-beginning 2)) ?%)
		  'cperl-hash-face
		'cperl-array-face)
	      nil)			; arrays and hashes
	     ("\\(\\([$@%]+\\)[a-zA-Z_:][a-zA-Z0-9_:]*\\)[ \t]*\\([[{]\\)"
	      1
	      (if (= (- (match-end 2) (match-beginning 2)) 1)
		  (if (eq (char-after (match-beginning 3)) ?{)
		      'cperl-hash-face
		    'cperl-array-face)             ; arrays and hashes
		font-lock-variable-name-face)      ; Just to put something
	      t)
	     ("\\(@\\|\\$#\\)\\(\\$+\\([a-zA-Z_:][a-zA-Z0-9_:]*\\|[^ \t\n]\\)\\)"
	      (1 'cperl-array-face)
	      (2 font-lock-variable-name-face))
	     ("\\(%\\)\\(\\$+\\([a-zA-Z_:][a-zA-Z0-9_:]*\\|[^ \t\n]\\)\\)"
	      (1 'cperl-hash-face)
	      (2 font-lock-variable-name-face))
;;("\\([smy]\\|tr\\)\\([^a-z_A-Z0-9]\\)\\(\\([^\n\\]*||\\)\\)\\2")
;;; Too much noise from \s* @s[ and friends
	     ;;("\\(\\<\\([msy]\\|tr\\)[ \t]*\\([^ \t\na-zA-Z0-9_]\\)\\|\\(/\\)\\)"
	     ;;(3 font-lock-function-name-face t t)
	     ;;(4
	     ;; (if (cperl-slash-is-regexp)
	     ;;    font-lock-function-name-face 'default) nil t))
	     ))
	  (if cperl-highlight-variables-indiscriminately
	      (setq t-font-lock-keywords-1
		    (append t-font-lock-keywords-1
			    (list '("\\([$*]{?\\(?:\\sw+\\|::\\)+\\)" 1
				    font-lock-variable-name-face)))))
	  (setq cperl-font-lock-keywords-1
		(if cperl-syntaxify-by-font-lock
		    (cons 'cperl-fontify-update
			  t-font-lock-keywords)
		  t-font-lock-keywords)
		cperl-font-lock-keywords cperl-font-lock-keywords-1
		cperl-font-lock-keywords-2 (append
					   t-font-lock-keywords-1
					   cperl-font-lock-keywords-1)))
	(if (fboundp 'ps-print-buffer) (cperl-ps-print-init))
	(setq cperl-faces-init t))
    (error (message "cperl-init-faces (ignored): %s" errs))))


(defvar ps-bold-faces)
(defvar ps-italic-faces)
(defvar ps-underlined-faces)

(defun cperl-ps-print-init ()
  "Initialization of `ps-print' components for faces used in CPerl."
  (eval-after-load "ps-print"
    '(setq ps-bold-faces
	   ;; 			font-lock-variable-name-face
	   ;;			font-lock-constant-face
	   (append '(cperl-array-face cperl-hash-face)
		   ps-bold-faces)
	   ps-italic-faces
	   ;;			font-lock-constant-face
	   (append '(cperl-nonoverridable-face cperl-hash-face)
		   ps-italic-faces)
	   ps-underlined-faces
	   ;;	     font-lock-type-face
	   (append '(cperl-array-face cperl-hash-face underline cperl-nonoverridable-face)
		   ps-underlined-faces))))

(defvar ps-print-face-extension-alist)

(defun cperl-ps-print (&optional file)
  "Pretty-print in CPerl style.
If optional argument FILE is an empty string, prints to printer, otherwise
to the file FILE.  If FILE is nil, prompts for a file name.

Style of printout regulated by the variable `cperl-ps-print-face-properties'."
  (interactive)
  (or file
      (setq file (read-from-minibuffer
		  "Print to file (if empty - to printer): "
		  (concat (buffer-file-name) ".ps")
		  nil nil 'file-name-history)))
  (or (> (length file) 0)
      (setq file nil))
  (require 'ps-print)			; To get ps-print-face-extension-alist
  (let ((ps-print-color-p t)
	(ps-print-face-extension-alist ps-print-face-extension-alist))
    (ps-extend-face-list cperl-ps-print-face-properties)
    (ps-print-buffer-with-faces file)))

;; (defun cperl-ps-print-init ()
;;   "Initialization of `ps-print' components for faces used in CPerl."
;;   ;; Guard against old versions
;;   (defvar ps-underlined-faces nil)
;;   (defvar ps-bold-faces nil)
;;   (defvar ps-italic-faces nil)
;;   (setq ps-bold-faces
;; 	(append '(font-lock-emphasized-face
;; 		  cperl-array-face
;; 		  font-lock-keyword-face
;; 		  font-lock-variable-name-face
;; 		  font-lock-constant-face
;; 		  font-lock-reference-face
;; 		  font-lock-other-emphasized-face
;; 		  cperl-hash-face)
;; 		ps-bold-faces))
;;   (setq ps-italic-faces
;; 	(append '(cperl-nonoverridable-face
;; 		  font-lock-constant-face
;; 		  font-lock-reference-face
;; 		  font-lock-other-emphasized-face
;; 		  cperl-hash-face)
;; 		ps-italic-faces))
;;   (setq ps-underlined-faces
;; 	(append '(font-lock-emphasized-face
;; 		  cperl-array-face
;; 		  font-lock-other-emphasized-face
;; 		  cperl-hash-face
;; 		  cperl-nonoverridable-face font-lock-type-face)
;; 		ps-underlined-faces))
;;   (cons 'font-lock-type-face ps-underlined-faces))


(cperl-windowed-init)

(defconst cperl-styles-entries
  '(cperl-indent-level cperl-brace-offset cperl-continued-brace-offset
    cperl-label-offset cperl-extra-newline-before-brace
    cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline
    cperl-merge-trailing-else
    cperl-continued-statement-offset))

(defconst cperl-style-examples
"##### Numbers etc are: cperl-indent-level cperl-brace-offset
##### cperl-continued-brace-offset cperl-label-offset
##### cperl-continued-statement-offset
##### cperl-merge-trailing-else cperl-extra-newline-before-brace

########### (Do not forget cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline)

### CPerl	(=GNU - extra-newline-before-brace + merge-trailing-else) 2/0/0/-2/2/t/nil
if (foo) {
  bar
    baz;
 label:
  {
    boon;
  }
} else {
  stop;
}

### PBP (=Perl Best Practices)				4/0/0/-4/4/nil/nil
if (foo) {
    bar
	baz;
  label:
    {
	boon;
    }
}
else {
    stop;
}
### PerlStyle	(=CPerl with 4 as indent)		4/0/0/-2/4/t/nil
if (foo) {
    bar
	baz;
 label:
    {
	boon;
    }
} else {
    stop;
}

### GNU							2/0/0/-2/2/nil/t
if (foo)
  {
    bar
      baz;
  label:
    {
      boon;
    }
  }
else
  {
    stop;
  }

### C++		(=PerlStyle with braces aligned with control words) 4/0/-4/-4/4/nil/t
if (foo)
{
    bar
	baz;
 label:
    {
	boon;
    }
}
else
{
    stop;
}

### BSD		(=C++, but will not change preexisting merge-trailing-else
###		 and extra-newline-before-brace )		4/0/-4/-4/4
if (foo)
{
    bar
	baz;
 label:
    {
	boon;
    }
}
else
{
    stop;
}

### K&R		(=C++ with indent 5 - merge-trailing-else, but will not
###		 change preexisting extra-newline-before-brace)	5/0/-5/-5/5/nil
if (foo)
{
     bar
	  baz;
 label:
     {
	  boon;
     }
}
else
{
     stop;
}

### Whitesmith	(=PerlStyle, but will not change preexisting
###		 extra-newline-before-brace and merge-trailing-else) 4/0/0/-4/4
if (foo)
    {
	bar
	    baz;
    label:
	{
	    boon;
	}
    }
else
    {
	stop;
    }
"
"Examples of if/else with different indent styles (with v4.23).")

(defconst cperl-style-alist
  '(("CPerl" ;; =GNU - extra-newline-before-brace + cperl-merge-trailing-else
     (cperl-indent-level               .  2)
     (cperl-brace-offset               .  0)
     (cperl-continued-brace-offset     .  0)
     (cperl-label-offset               . -2)
     (cperl-continued-statement-offset .  2)
     (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace .  nil)
     (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline .  nil)
     (cperl-merge-trailing-else	       .  t))

    ("PBP"  ;; Perl Best Practices by Damian Conway
     (cperl-indent-level               .  4)
     (cperl-brace-offset               .  0)
     (cperl-continued-brace-offset     .  0)
     (cperl-label-offset               . -2)
     (cperl-continued-statement-offset .  4)
     (cperl-close-paren-offset         . -4)
     (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace .  nil)
     (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline .  nil)
     (cperl-merge-trailing-else        .  nil)
     (cperl-indent-parens-as-block     .  t)
     (cperl-tab-always-indent          .  t))

    ("PerlStyle"			; CPerl with 4 as indent
     (cperl-indent-level               .  4)
     (cperl-brace-offset               .  0)
     (cperl-continued-brace-offset     .  0)
     (cperl-label-offset               . -4)
     (cperl-continued-statement-offset .  4)
     (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace .  nil)
     (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline .  nil)
     (cperl-merge-trailing-else	       .  t))

    ("GNU"
     (cperl-indent-level               .  2)
     (cperl-brace-offset               .  0)
     (cperl-continued-brace-offset     .  0)
     (cperl-label-offset               . -2)
     (cperl-continued-statement-offset .  2)
     (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace .  t)
     (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline .  t)
     (cperl-merge-trailing-else	       .  nil))

    ("K&R"
     (cperl-indent-level               .  5)
     (cperl-brace-offset               .  0)
     (cperl-continued-brace-offset     . -5)
     (cperl-label-offset               . -5)
     (cperl-continued-statement-offset .  5)
     ;;(cperl-extra-newline-before-brace .  nil) ; ???
     ;;(cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline .  nil)
     (cperl-merge-trailing-else	       .  nil))

    ("BSD"
     (cperl-indent-level               .  4)
     (cperl-brace-offset               .  0)
     (cperl-continued-brace-offset     . -4)
     (cperl-label-offset               . -4)
     (cperl-continued-statement-offset .  4)
     ;;(cperl-extra-newline-before-brace .  nil) ; ???
     ;;(cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline .  nil)
     ;;(cperl-merge-trailing-else	       .  nil) ; ???
     )

    ("C++"
     (cperl-indent-level               .  4)
     (cperl-brace-offset               .  0)
     (cperl-continued-brace-offset     . -4)
     (cperl-label-offset               . -4)
     (cperl-continued-statement-offset .  4)
     (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace .  t)
     (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline .  t)
     (cperl-merge-trailing-else	       .  nil))

    ("Whitesmith"
     (cperl-indent-level               .  4)
     (cperl-brace-offset               .  0)
     (cperl-continued-brace-offset     .  0)
     (cperl-label-offset               . -4)
     (cperl-continued-statement-offset .  4)
     ;;(cperl-extra-newline-before-brace .  nil) ; ???
     ;;(cperl-extra-newline-before-brace-multiline .  nil)
     ;;(cperl-merge-trailing-else	       .  nil) ; ???
     )
    ("Current"))
  "List of variables to set to get a particular indentation style.
Should be used via `cperl-set-style' or via Perl menu.

See examples in `cperl-style-examples'.")

(defun cperl-set-style (style)
  "Set CPerl mode variables to use one of several different indentation styles.
The arguments are a string representing the desired style.
The list of styles is in `cperl-style-alist', available styles
are \"CPerl\", \"PBP\", \"PerlStyle\", \"GNU\", \"K&R\", \"BSD\", \"C++\"
and \"Whitesmith\".

The current value of style is memorized (unless there is a memorized
data already), may be restored by `cperl-set-style-back'.

Choosing \"Current\" style will not change style, so this may be used for
side-effect of memorizing only.  Examples in `cperl-style-examples'."
  (interactive
   (list (completing-read "Enter style: " cperl-style-alist nil 'insist)))
  (or cperl-old-style
      (setq cperl-old-style
            (mapcar (lambda (name)
                      (cons name (eval name)))
		    cperl-styles-entries)))
  (let ((style (cdr (assoc style cperl-style-alist))) setting)
    (while style
      (setq setting (car style) style (cdr style))
      (set (car setting) (cdr setting)))))

(defun cperl-set-style-back ()
  "Restore a style memorized by `cperl-set-style'."
  (interactive)
  (or cperl-old-style (error "The style was not changed"))
  (let (setting)
    (while cperl-old-style
      (setq setting (car cperl-old-style)
	    cperl-old-style (cdr cperl-old-style))
      (set (car setting) (cdr setting)))))

(defvar perl-dbg-flags)
(defun cperl-check-syntax ()
  (interactive)
  (require 'mode-compile)
  (let ((perl-dbg-flags (concat cperl-extra-perl-args " -wc")))
    (eval '(mode-compile))))		; Avoid a warning

(declare-function Info-find-node "info"
		  (filename nodename &optional no-going-back strict-case))

(defun cperl-info-buffer (type)
  ;; Returns buffer with documentation.  Creates if missing.
  ;; If TYPE, this vars buffer.
  ;; Special care is taken to not stomp over an existing info buffer
  (let* ((bname (if type "*info-perl-var*" "*info-perl*"))
	 (info (get-buffer bname))
	 (oldbuf (get-buffer "*info*")))
    (if info info
      (save-window-excursion
	;; Get Info running
	(require 'info)
	(cond (oldbuf
	       (set-buffer oldbuf)
	       (rename-buffer "*info-perl-tmp*")))
	(save-window-excursion
	  (info))
	(Info-find-node cperl-info-page (if type "perlvar" "perlfunc"))
	(set-buffer "*info*")
	(rename-buffer bname)
	(cond (oldbuf
	       (set-buffer "*info-perl-tmp*")
	       (rename-buffer "*info*")
	       (set-buffer bname)))
        (setq-local window-min-height 2)
	(current-buffer)))))

(defun cperl-word-at-point (&optional p)
  "Return the word at point or at P."
  (save-excursion
    (if p (goto-char p))
    (or (cperl-word-at-point-hard)
	(progn
	  (require 'etags)
	  (funcall (or (and (boundp 'find-tag-default-function)
			    find-tag-default-function)
		       (get major-mode 'find-tag-default-function)
		       'find-tag-default))))))

(defun cperl-info-on-command (command)
  "Show documentation for Perl command COMMAND in other window.
If perl-info buffer is shown in some frame, uses this frame.
Customized by setting variables `cperl-shrink-wrap-info-frame',
`cperl-max-help-size'."
  (interactive
   (let* ((default (cperl-word-at-point))
	  (read (read-string
		 (cperl--format-prompt "Find doc for Perl function" default))))
     (list (if (equal read "")
	       default
	     read))))

  (let ((cmd-desc (concat "^" (regexp-quote command) "[^a-zA-Z_0-9]")) ; "tr///"
	pos isvar height iniheight frheight buf win fr1 fr2 iniwin not-loner
	max-height char-height buf-list)
    (if (string-match "^-[a-zA-Z]$" command)
	(setq cmd-desc "^-X[ \t\n]"))
    (setq isvar (string-match "^[$@%]" command)
	  buf (cperl-info-buffer isvar)
	  iniwin (selected-window)
	  fr1 (window-frame iniwin))
    (set-buffer buf)
    (goto-char (point-min))
    (or isvar
	(progn (re-search-forward "^-X[ \t\n]")
	       (forward-line -1)))
    (if (re-search-forward cmd-desc nil t)
	(progn
	  ;; Go back to beginning of the group (ex, for qq)
	  (if (re-search-backward "^[ \t\n\f]")
	      (forward-line 1))
	  (beginning-of-line)
	  ;; Get some of
	  (setq pos (point)
		buf-list (list buf "*info-perl-var*" "*info-perl*"))
	  (while (and (not win) buf-list)
	    (setq win (get-buffer-window (car buf-list) t))
	    (setq buf-list (cdr buf-list)))
	  (or (not win)
	      (eq (window-buffer win) buf)
	      (set-window-buffer win buf))
	  (and win (setq fr2 (window-frame win)))
	  (if (or (not fr2) (eq fr1 fr2))
	      (pop-to-buffer buf)
	    (special-display-popup-frame buf) ; Make it visible
	    (select-window win))
	  (goto-char pos)		; Needed (?!).
	  ;; Resize
	  (setq iniheight (window-height)
		frheight (frame-height)
		not-loner (< iniheight (1- frheight))) ; Are not alone
	  (cond ((if not-loner cperl-max-help-size
		   cperl-shrink-wrap-info-frame)
		 (setq height
		       (+ 2
			  (count-lines
			   pos
			   (save-excursion
			     (if (re-search-forward
				  "^[ \t][^\n]*\n+\\([^ \t\n\f]\\|\\'\\)" nil t)
				 (match-beginning 0) (point-max)))))
		       max-height
		       (if not-loner
			   (/ (* (- frheight 3) cperl-max-help-size) 100)
			 (setq char-height (frame-char-height))
			 (if (eq char-height 1) (setq char-height 18))
			 ;; Title, menubar, + 2 for slack
			 (- (/ (display-pixel-height) char-height) 4)))
		 (if (> height max-height) (setq height max-height))
		 ;;(message "was %s doing %s" iniheight height)
		 (if not-loner
		     (enlarge-window (- height iniheight))
		   (set-frame-height (window-frame win) (1+ height)))))
	  (set-window-start (selected-window) pos))
      (message "No entry for %s found." command))
    ;;(pop-to-buffer buffer)
    (select-window iniwin)))

(defun cperl-info-on-current-command ()
  "Show documentation for Perl command at point in other window."
  (interactive)
  (cperl-info-on-command (cperl-word-at-point)))

(defun cperl-imenu-info-imenu-search ()
  (if (looking-at "^-X[ \t\n]") nil
    (re-search-backward
     "^\n\\([-a-zA-Z_]+\\)[ \t\n]")
    (forward-line 1)))

(defun cperl-imenu-info-imenu-name ()
  (buffer-substring
   (match-beginning 1) (match-end 1)))

(declare-function imenu-choose-buffer-index "imenu" (&optional prompt alist))

(defun cperl-imenu-on-info ()
  "Shows imenu for Perl Info Buffer.
Opens Perl Info buffer if needed."
  (interactive)
  (require 'imenu)
  (let* ((buffer (current-buffer))
	 imenu-create-index-function
	 imenu-prev-index-position-function
	 imenu-extract-index-name-function
	 (index-item (save-restriction
		       (save-window-excursion
			 (set-buffer (cperl-info-buffer nil))
			 (setq imenu-create-index-function
			       'imenu-default-create-index-function
			       imenu-prev-index-position-function
			       #'cperl-imenu-info-imenu-search
			       imenu-extract-index-name-function
			       #'cperl-imenu-info-imenu-name)
			 (imenu-choose-buffer-index)))))
    (and index-item
	 (progn
	   (push-mark)
	   (pop-to-buffer "*info-perl*")
	   (cond
	    ((markerp (cdr index-item))
	     (goto-char (marker-position (cdr index-item))))
	    (t
	     (goto-char (cdr index-item))))
	   (set-window-start (selected-window) (point))
	   (pop-to-buffer buffer)))))

(defun cperl-lineup (beg end &optional step minshift)
  "Lineup construction in a region.
Beginning of region should be at the start of a construction.
All first occurrences of this construction in the lines that are
partially contained in the region are lined up at the same column.

MINSHIFT is the minimal amount of space to insert before the construction.
STEP is the tabwidth to position constructions.
If STEP is nil, `cperl-lineup-step' will be used
\(or `cperl-indent-level', if `cperl-lineup-step' is nil).
Will not move the position at the start to the left."
  (interactive "r")
  (let (search col tcol seen)
    (save-excursion
      (goto-char end)
      (end-of-line)
      (setq end (point-marker))
      (goto-char beg)
      (skip-chars-forward " \t\f")
      (setq beg (point-marker))
      (indent-region beg end nil)
      (goto-char beg)
      (setq col (current-column))
      (if (looking-at "[a-zA-Z0-9_]")
	  (if (looking-at "\\<[a-zA-Z0-9_]+\\>")
	      (setq search
		    (concat "\\<"
			    (regexp-quote
			     (buffer-substring (match-beginning 0)
					       (match-end 0))) "\\>"))
	    (error "Cannot line up in a middle of the word"))
	(if (looking-at "$")
	    (error "Cannot line up end of line"))
	(setq search (regexp-quote (char-to-string (following-char)))))
      (setq step (or step cperl-lineup-step cperl-indent-level))
      (or minshift (setq minshift 1))
      (while (progn
	       (beginning-of-line 2)
	       (and (< (point) end)
		    (re-search-forward search end t)
		    (goto-char (match-beginning 0))))
	(setq tcol (current-column) seen t)
	(if (> tcol col) (setq col tcol)))
      (or seen
	  (error "The construction to line up occurred only once"))
      (goto-char beg)
      (setq col (+ col minshift))
      (if (/= (% col step) 0) (setq step (* step (1+ (/ col step)))))
      (while
	  (progn
	    (cperl-make-indent col)
	    (beginning-of-line 2)
	    (and (< (point) end)
		 (re-search-forward search end t)
		 (goto-char (match-beginning 0)))))))) ; No body

(defun cperl-etags (&optional add all files) ;; NOT USED???
  "Run etags with appropriate options for Perl files.
If optional argument ALL is `recursive', will process Perl files
in subdirectories too."
  (interactive)
  (let ((cmd "etags")
	(args `("-l" "none" "-r"
		;;                        1=fullname  2=package?             3=name                       4=proto?             5=attrs? (VERY APPROX!)
		,(concat
		  "/\\<" cperl-sub-regexp "[ \\t]+\\(\\([a-zA-Z0-9:_]*::\\)?\\([a-zA-Z0-9_]+\\)\\)[ \\t]*\\(([^()]*)[ \t]*\\)?\\([ \t]*:[^#{;]*\\)?\\([{#]\\|$\\)/\\3/")
		"-r"
		"/\\<package[ \\t]+\\(\\([a-zA-Z0-9:_]*::\\)?\\([a-zA-Z0-9_]+\\)\\)[ \\t]*\\([#;]\\|$\\)/\\1/"
		"-r"
		"/\\<\\(package\\)[ \\t]*;/\\1;/"))
	res)
    (if add (setq args (cons "-a" args)))
    (or files (setq files (list buffer-file-name)))
    (cond
     ((eq all 'recursive)
      ;;(error "Not implemented: recursive")
      (setq args (append (list "-e"
			       "sub wanted {push @ARGV, $File::Find::name if /\\.[pP][Llm]$/}
				use File::Find;
				find(\\&wanted, '.');
				exec @ARGV;"
			       cmd) args)
	    cmd "perl"))
     (all
      ;;(error "Not implemented: all")
      (setq args (append (list "-e"
			       "push @ARGV, <*.PL *.pl *.pm>;
				exec @ARGV;"
			       cmd) args)
	    cmd "perl"))
     (t
      (setq args (append args files))))
    (setq res (apply 'call-process cmd nil nil nil args))
    (or (eq res 0)
	(message "etags returned \"%s\"" res))))

(defun cperl-toggle-auto-newline ()
  "Toggle the state of `cperl-auto-newline'."
  (interactive)
  (setq cperl-auto-newline (not cperl-auto-newline))
  (message "Newlines will %sbe auto-inserted now."
	   (if cperl-auto-newline "" "not ")))

(defun cperl-toggle-abbrev ()
  "Toggle the state of automatic keyword expansion in CPerl mode."
  (interactive)
  (abbrev-mode (if abbrev-mode 0 1))
  (message "Perl control structure will %sbe auto-inserted now."
	   (if abbrev-mode "" "not ")))


(defun cperl-toggle-electric ()
  "Toggle the state of parentheses doubling in CPerl mode."
  (interactive)
  (setq cperl-electric-parens (if (cperl-val 'cperl-electric-parens) 'null t))
  (message "Parentheses will %sbe auto-doubled now."
	   (if (cperl-val 'cperl-electric-parens) "" "not ")))

(defun cperl-toggle-autohelp ()
  ;; FIXME: Turn me into a minor mode.  Fix menu entries for "Auto-help on" as
  ;; well.
  "Toggle the state of Auto-Help on Perl constructs (put in the message area).
Delay of auto-help controlled by `cperl-lazy-help-time'."
  (interactive)
  (if cperl-lazy-installed
      (cperl-lazy-unstall)
    (cperl-lazy-install))
  (message "Perl help messages will %sbe automatically shown now."
	   (if cperl-lazy-installed "" "not ")))

(defun cperl-toggle-construct-fix ()
  "Toggle whether `indent-region'/`indent-sexp' fix whitespace too."
  (interactive)
  (setq cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs
	(if cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs
	    nil
	  1))
  (message "indent-region/indent-sexp will %sbe automatically fix whitespace."
	   (if cperl-indent-region-fix-constructs "" "not ")))

(defun cperl-toggle-set-debug-unwind (arg &optional backtrace)
  "Toggle (or, with numeric argument, set) debugging state of syntaxification.
Nonpositive numeric argument disables debugging messages.  The message
summarizes which regions it was decided to rescan for syntactic constructs.

The message looks like this:

  Syxify req=123..138 actual=101..146 done-to: 112=>146 statepos: 73=>117

Numbers are character positions in the buffer.  REQ provides the range to
rescan requested by `font-lock'.  ACTUAL is the range actually resyntaxified;
for correct operation it should start and end outside any special syntactic
construct.  DONE-TO and STATEPOS indicate changes to internal caches maintained
by CPerl."
  (interactive "P")
  (or arg
      (setq arg (if (eq cperl-syntaxify-by-font-lock
			(if backtrace 'backtrace 'message))
                    0 1)))
  (setq arg (if (> arg 0) (if backtrace 'backtrace 'message) t))
  (setq cperl-syntaxify-by-font-lock arg)
  (message "Debugging messages of syntax unwind %sabled."
	   (if (eq arg t) "dis" "en")))

;;;; Tags file creation.

(defvar cperl-tmp-buffer " *cperl-tmp*")

(defun cperl-setup-tmp-buf ()
  (set-buffer (get-buffer-create cperl-tmp-buffer))
  (set-syntax-table cperl-mode-syntax-table)
  (buffer-disable-undo)
  (auto-fill-mode 0)
  (if cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property-for-tags
      (progn
	;; Do not introduce variable if not needed, we check it!
        (setq-local parse-sexp-lookup-properties t))))

;; Copied from imenu-example--name-and-position.
(defvar imenu-use-markers)

(defun cperl-imenu-name-and-position ()
  "Return the current/previous sexp and its (beginning) location.
Does not move point."
  (save-excursion
    (forward-sexp -1)
    (let ((beg (if imenu-use-markers (point-marker) (point)))
	  (end (progn (forward-sexp) (point))))
      (cons (buffer-substring beg end)
	    beg))))

(defun cperl-xsub-scan ()
  (require 'imenu)
  (let ((index-alist '())
        index index1 name package prefix)
    (goto-char (point-min))
    ;; Search for the function
    (progn ;;save-match-data
      (while (re-search-forward
	      "^\\([ \t]*MODULE\\>[^\n]*\\<PACKAGE[ \t]*=[ \t]*\\([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9:]*\\)\\>\\|\\([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*\\)(\\|[ \t]*BOOT:\\)"
	      nil t)
	(cond
	 ((match-beginning 2)		; SECTION
	  (setq package (buffer-substring (match-beginning 2) (match-end 2)))
	  (goto-char (match-beginning 0))
	  (skip-chars-forward " \t")
	  (forward-char 1)
	  (if (looking-at "[^\n]*\\<PREFIX[ \t]*=[ \t]*\\([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*\\)\\>")
	      (setq prefix (buffer-substring (match-beginning 1) (match-end 1)))
	    (setq prefix nil)))
	 ((not package) nil)		; C language section
	 ((match-beginning 3)		; XSUB
	  (goto-char (1+ (match-beginning 3)))
	  (setq index (cperl-imenu-name-and-position))
	  (setq name (buffer-substring (match-beginning 3) (match-end 3)))
	  (if (and prefix (string-match (concat "^" prefix) name))
	      (setq name (substring name (length prefix))))
	  (cond ((string-match "::" name) nil)
		(t
		 (setq index1 (cons (concat package "::" name) (cdr index)))
		 (push index1 index-alist)))
	  (setcar index name)
	  (push index index-alist))
	 (t				; BOOT: section
	  ;; (beginning-of-line)
	  (setq index (cperl-imenu-name-and-position))
	  (setcar index (concat package "::BOOT:"))
	  (push index index-alist)))))
    index-alist))

(defvar cperl-unreadable-ok nil)

(defun cperl-find-tags (ifile xs topdir)
  (let ((b (get-buffer cperl-tmp-buffer)) ind lst elt pos ret rel
	(cperl-pod-here-fontify nil) file)
    (save-excursion
      (if b (set-buffer b)
	(cperl-setup-tmp-buf))
      (erase-buffer)
      (condition-case nil
	  (setq file (car (insert-file-contents ifile)))
	(error (if cperl-unreadable-ok nil
		 (if (y-or-n-p
		      (format "File %s unreadable.  Continue? " ifile))
		     (setq cperl-unreadable-ok t)
		   (error "Aborting: unreadable file %s" ifile)))))
      (if (not file)
	  (message "Unreadable file %s" ifile)
	(message "Scanning file %s ..." file)
	(if (and cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property-for-tags
		 (not xs))
	    (condition-case err		; after __END__ may have garbage
		(cperl-find-pods-heres nil nil noninteractive)
	      (error (message "While scanning for syntax: %S" err))))
	(if xs
	    (setq lst (cperl-xsub-scan))
	  (setq ind (cperl-imenu--create-perl-index))
	  (setq lst (cdr (assoc "+Unsorted List+..." ind))))
	(setq lst
	      (mapcar
               (lambda (elt)
                 (cond ((string-match "^[_a-zA-Z]" (car elt))
                        (goto-char (cdr elt))
                        (beginning-of-line) ; pos should be of the start of the line
                        (list (car elt)
                              (point)
                              (1+ (count-lines 1 (point))) ; 1+ since at beg-o-l
                              (buffer-substring (progn
                                                  (goto-char (cdr elt))
                                                  ;; After name now...
                                                  (or (eolp) (forward-char 1))
                                                  (point))
                                                (progn
                                                  (beginning-of-line)
                                                  (point)))))))
	       lst))
	(erase-buffer)
	(while lst
	  (setq elt (car lst) lst (cdr lst))
	  (if elt
	      (progn
		(insert (elt elt 3)
			127
			(if (string-match "^package " (car elt))
			    (substring (car elt) 8)
			  (car elt) )
			1
			(number-to-string (elt elt 2)) ; Line
			","
			(number-to-string (1- (elt elt 1))) ; Char pos 0-based
			"\n")
		(if (and (string-match "^[_a-zA-Z]+::" (car elt))
			 (string-match (concat "^" cperl-sub-regexp "[ \t]+\\([_a-zA-Z]+\\)[^:_a-zA-Z]")
				       (elt elt 3)))
		    ;; Need to insert the name without package as well
		    (setq lst (cons (cons (substring (elt elt 3)
						     (match-beginning 1)
						     (match-end 1))
					  (cdr elt))
				    lst))))))
	(setq pos (point))
	(goto-char 1)
	(setq rel file)
	;; On case-preserving filesystems case might be encoded in properties
	(set-text-properties 0 (length rel) nil rel)
	(and (equal topdir (substring rel 0 (length topdir)))
	     (setq rel (substring file (length topdir))))
	(insert "\f\n" rel "," (number-to-string (1- pos)) "\n")
	(setq ret (buffer-substring 1 (point-max)))
	(erase-buffer)
	(or noninteractive
	    (message "Scanning file %s finished" file))
	ret))))

(defun cperl-add-tags-recurse-noxs ()
  "Add to TAGS data for \"pure\" Perl files in the current directory and kids.
Use as
  emacs -batch -q -no-site-file -l emacs/cperl-mode.el \\
        -f cperl-add-tags-recurse-noxs
"
  (cperl-write-tags nil nil t t nil t))

(defun cperl-add-tags-recurse-noxs-fullpath ()
  "Add to TAGS data for \"pure\" Perl in the current directory and kids.
Writes down fullpath, so TAGS is relocatable (but if the build directory
is relocated, the file TAGS inside it breaks). Use as
  emacs -batch -q -no-site-file -l emacs/cperl-mode.el \\
        -f cperl-add-tags-recurse-noxs-fullpath
"
  (cperl-write-tags nil nil t t nil t ""))

(defun cperl-add-tags-recurse ()
  "Add to TAGS file data for Perl files in the current directory and kids.
Use as
  emacs -batch -q -no-site-file -l emacs/cperl-mode.el \\
        -f cperl-add-tags-recurse
"
  (cperl-write-tags nil nil t t))

(defvar cperl-tags-file-name "TAGS"
  "TAGS file name to use in `cperl-write-tags'.")

(defun cperl-write-tags (&optional file erase recurse dir inbuffer noxs topdir)
  ;; If INBUFFER, do not select buffer, and do not save
  ;; If ERASE is `ignore', do not erase, and do not try to delete old info.
  (require 'etags)
  (if file nil
    (setq file (if dir default-directory (buffer-file-name)))
    (if (and (not dir) (buffer-modified-p)) (error "Save buffer first!")))
  (or topdir
      (setq topdir default-directory))
  (let ((tags-file-name cperl-tags-file-name)
        (inhibit-read-only t)
	(case-fold-search nil)
	xs rel)
    (save-excursion
      (cond (inbuffer nil)		; Already there
	    ((file-exists-p tags-file-name)
	     (visit-tags-table-buffer tags-file-name))
	    (t
             (set-buffer (find-file-noselect tags-file-name))))
      (cond
       (dir
	(cond ((eq erase 'ignore))
	      (erase
	       (erase-buffer)
	       (setq erase 'ignore)))
	(let ((files
	       (condition-case nil
		   (directory-files file t
				    (if recurse nil cperl-scan-files-regexp)
				    t)
		 (error
		  (if cperl-unreadable-ok nil
		    (if (y-or-n-p
			 (format "Directory %s unreadable.  Continue? " file))
			(progn
                          (setq cperl-unreadable-ok t)
                          nil)	; Return empty list
		      (error "Aborting: unreadable directory %s" file)))))))
          (mapc (lambda (file)
                  (cond
                   ((string-match cperl-noscan-files-regexp file)
                    nil)
                   ((not (file-directory-p file))
                    (if (string-match cperl-scan-files-regexp file)
                        (cperl-write-tags file erase recurse nil t noxs topdir)))
                   ((not recurse) nil)
                   (t (cperl-write-tags file erase recurse t t noxs topdir))))
		files)))
       (t
	(setq xs (string-match "\\.xs$" file))
	(if (not (and xs noxs))
	    (progn
	      (cond ((eq erase 'ignore) (goto-char (point-max)))
		    (erase (erase-buffer))
		    (t
		     (goto-char 1)
		     (setq rel file)
		     ;; On case-preserving filesystems case might be encoded in properties
		     (set-text-properties 0 (length rel) nil rel)
		     (and (equal topdir (substring rel 0 (length topdir)))
			  (setq rel (substring file (length topdir))))
		     (if (search-forward (concat "\f\n" rel ",") nil t)
			 (progn
			   (search-backward "\f\n")
			   (delete-region (point)
					  (save-excursion
					    (forward-char 1)
					    (if (search-forward "\f\n"
								nil 'toend)
						(- (point) 2)
					      (point-max)))))
		       (goto-char (point-max)))))
	      (insert (cperl-find-tags file xs topdir))))))
      (if inbuffer nil			; Delegate to the caller
	(save-buffer 0)			; No backup
	(if (fboundp 'initialize-new-tags-table)
	    (initialize-new-tags-table))))))

(defvar cperl-tags-hier-regexp-list
  (concat
   "^\\("
      "\\(package\\)\\>"
     "\\|"
      cperl-sub-regexp "\\>[^\n]+::"
     "\\|"
      "[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9:]*(\C-?[^\n]+::" ; XSUB?
     "\\|"
      "[ \t]*BOOT:\C-?[^\n]+::"		; BOOT section
   "\\)"))

(defvar cperl-hierarchy '(() ())
  "Global hierarchy of classes.")

;; Follows call to (autoloaded) visit-tags-table.
(declare-function file-of-tag "etags" (&optional relative))
(declare-function etags-snarf-tag "etags" (&optional use-explicit))

(defun cperl-tags-hier-fill ()
  ;; Suppose we are in a tag table cooked by cperl.
  (goto-char 1)
  (let (pack name line ord cons1 file info fileind)
    (while (re-search-forward cperl-tags-hier-regexp-list nil t)
      (setq pack (match-beginning 2))
      (beginning-of-line)
      (if (looking-at (concat
		       "\\([^\n]+\\)"
		       "\C-?"
		       "\\([^\n]+\\)"
		       "\C-a"
		       "\\([0-9]+\\)"
		       ","
		       "\\([0-9]+\\)"))
	  (progn
	    (setq ;;str (buffer-substring (match-beginning 1) (match-end 1))
		  name (buffer-substring (match-beginning 2) (match-end 2))
		  ;;pos (buffer-substring (match-beginning 3) (match-end 3))
		  line (buffer-substring (match-beginning 3) (match-end 3))
		  ord (if pack 1 0)
		  file (file-of-tag)
		  fileind (format "%s:%s" file line)
		  ;; Moves to beginning of the next line:
		  info (etags-snarf-tag))
	    ;; Move back
	    (forward-char -1)
	    ;; Make new member of hierarchy name ==> file ==> pos if needed
	    (if (setq cons1 (assoc name (nth ord cperl-hierarchy)))
		;; Name known
		(setcdr cons1 (cons (cons fileind (vector file info))
				    (cdr cons1)))
	      ;; First occurrence of the name, start alist
	      (setq cons1 (cons name (list (cons fileind (vector file info)))))
	      (if pack
		  (setcar (cdr cperl-hierarchy)
			  (cons cons1 (nth 1 cperl-hierarchy)))
		(setcar cperl-hierarchy
			(cons cons1 (car cperl-hierarchy)))))))
      (end-of-line))))

(declare-function x-popup-menu "menu.c" (position menu))
(declare-function etags-goto-tag-location "etags" (tag-info))

(defun cperl-tags-hier-init (&optional update)
  "Show hierarchical menu of classes and methods.
Finds info about classes by a scan of loaded TAGS files.
Supposes that the TAGS files contain fully qualified function names.
One may build such TAGS files from CPerl mode menu."
  (interactive)
  (require 'etags)
  (require 'imenu)
  (if (or update (null (nth 2 cperl-hierarchy)))
      (let ((remover (lambda (elt) ; (name (file1...) (file2..))
                       (or (nthcdr 2 elt)
                           ;; Only in one file
                           (setcdr elt (cdr (nth 1 elt))))))
	    to) ;; l1 l2 l3
	;; (setq cperl-hierarchy '(() () ())) ; Would write into '() later!
	(setq cperl-hierarchy (list () () ())) ;; (list l1 l2 l3)
	(or tags-table-list
	    (call-interactively 'visit-tags-table))
	(mapc
         (lambda (tagsfile)
           (message "Updating list of classes... %s" tagsfile)
           (set-buffer (get-file-buffer tagsfile))
           (cperl-tags-hier-fill))
	 tags-table-list)
	(message "Updating list of classes... postprocessing...")
	(mapc remover (car cperl-hierarchy))
	(mapc remover (nth 1 cperl-hierarchy))
	(setq to (list nil (cons "Packages: " (nth 1 cperl-hierarchy))
		       (cons "Methods: " (car cperl-hierarchy))))
	(cperl-tags-treeify to 1)
	(setcar (nthcdr 2 cperl-hierarchy)
		(cperl-menu-to-keymap (cons '("+++UPDATE+++" . -999) (cdr to))))
	(message "Updating list of classes: done, requesting display...")))
  (or (nth 2 cperl-hierarchy)
      (error "No items found"))
  (setq update
        ;; (imenu-choose-buffer-index "Packages: " (nth 2 cperl-hierarchy))
	(if (if (fboundp 'display-popup-menus-p)
		(display-popup-menus-p)
	      window-system)
	    (x-popup-menu t (nth 2 cperl-hierarchy))
	  (require 'tmm)
	  (tmm-prompt (nth 2 cperl-hierarchy))))
  (if (and update (listp update))
      (progn (while (cdr update) (setq update (cdr update)))
	     (setq update (car update)))) ; Get the last from the list
  (if (vectorp update)
      (progn
	(find-file (elt update 0))
	(etags-goto-tag-location (elt update 1))))
  (if (eq update -999) (cperl-tags-hier-init t)))

(defun cperl-tags-treeify (to level)
  ;; cadr of `to' is read-write.  On start it is a cons
  (let* ((regexp (concat "^\\(" (mapconcat
				 #'identity
				 (make-list level "[_a-zA-Z0-9]+")
				 "::")
			 "\\)\\(::\\)?"))
	 (packages (cdr (nth 1 to)))
	 (methods (cdr (nth 2 to)))
	 head cons1 cons2 ord writeto recurse ;; l1
	 root-packages root-functions
	 (move-deeper
          (lambda (elt)
            (cond ((and (string-match regexp (car elt))
                        (or (eq ord 1) (match-end 2)))
                   (setq head (substring (car elt) 0 (match-end 1))
                         recurse t)
                   (if (setq cons1 (assoc head writeto)) nil
                     ;; Need to init new head
                     (setcdr writeto (cons (list head (list "Packages: ")
                                                 (list "Methods: "))
                                           (cdr writeto)))
                     (setq cons1 (nth 1 writeto)))
                   (setq cons2 (nth ord cons1)) ; Either packs or meths
                   (setcdr cons2 (cons elt (cdr cons2))))
                  ((eq ord 2)
                   (setq root-functions (cons elt root-functions)))
                  (t
                   (setq root-packages (cons elt root-packages)))))))
    (setcdr to nil) ;; l1		; Init to dynamic space
    (setq writeto to)
    (setq ord 1)
    (mapc move-deeper packages)
    (setq ord 2)
    (mapc move-deeper methods)
    (if recurse
        (mapc (lambda (elt)
                (cperl-tags-treeify elt (1+ level)))
	      (cdr to)))
    ;;Now clean up leaders with one child only
    (mapc (lambda (elt)
            (if (not (and (listp (cdr elt))
                          (eq (length elt) 2)))
                nil
              (setcar elt (car (nth 1 elt)))
              (setcdr elt (cdr (nth 1 elt)))))
	  (cdr to))
    ;; Sort the roots of subtrees
    (if (default-value 'imenu-sort-function)
	(setcdr to
		(sort (cdr to) (default-value 'imenu-sort-function))))
    ;; Now add back functions removed from display
    (mapc (lambda (elt)
            (setcdr to (cons elt (cdr to))))
	  (if (default-value 'imenu-sort-function)
	      (nreverse
	       (sort root-functions (default-value 'imenu-sort-function)))
	    root-functions))
    ;; Now add back packages removed from display
    (mapc (lambda (elt)
            (setcdr to (cons (cons (concat "package " (car elt))
                                   (cdr elt))
                             (cdr to))))
	  (if (default-value 'imenu-sort-function)
	      (nreverse
	       (sort root-packages (default-value 'imenu-sort-function)))
	    root-packages))))

;;(x-popup-menu t
;;   '(keymap "Name1"
;;	    ("Ret1" "aa")
;;	    ("Head1" "ab"
;;	     keymap "Name2"
;;	     ("Tail1" "x") ("Tail2" "y"))))

(defun cperl-list-fold (list name limit)
  (let (list1 list2 elt1 (num 0))
    (if (<= (length list) limit) list
      (setq list1 nil list2 nil)
      (while list
	(setq num (1+ num)
	      elt1 (car list)
	      list (cdr list))
	(if (<= num imenu-max-items)
	    (setq list2 (cons elt1 list2))
	  (setq list1 (cons (cons name
				  (nreverse list2))
			    list1)
		list2 (list elt1)
		num 1)))
      (nreverse (cons (cons name
			    (nreverse list2))
		      list1)))))

(defun cperl-menu-to-keymap (menu)
  (let (list)
    (cons 'keymap
	  (mapcar
           (lambda (elt)
             (cond ((listp (cdr elt))
                    (setq list (cperl-list-fold
                                (cdr elt) (car elt) imenu-max-items))
                    (cons nil
                          (cons (car elt)
                                (cperl-menu-to-keymap list))))
                   (t
                    (list (cdr elt) (car elt) t)))) ; t is needed in 19.34
	   (cperl-list-fold menu "Root" imenu-max-items)))))

\f
(defvar cperl-bad-style-regexp
  (mapconcat #'identity
	     '("[^-\n\t <>=+!.&|(*/'`\"#^][-=+<>!|&^]" ; char sign
	       "[-<>=+^&|]+[^- \t\n=+<>~]") ; sign+ char
	     "\\|")
  "Finds places such that insertion of a whitespace may help a lot.")

(defvar cperl-not-bad-style-regexp
  (mapconcat
   #'identity
   '("[^-\t <>=+]\\(--\\|\\+\\+\\)"	; var-- var++
     "[a-zA-Z0-9_][|&][a-zA-Z0-9_$]"	; abc|def abc&def are often used.
     "&[(a-zA-Z0-9_$]"			; &subroutine &(var->field)
     "<\\$?\\sw+\\(\\.\\(\\sw\\|_\\)+\\)?>"	; <IN> <stdin.h>
     "-[a-zA-Z][ \t]+[_$\"'`a-zA-Z]"	; -f file, -t STDIN
     "-[0-9]"				; -5
     "\\+\\+"				; ++var
     "--"				; --var
     ".->"				; a->b
     "->"				; a SPACE ->b
     "\\[-"				; a[-1]
     "\\\\[&$@*\\]"			; \&func
     "^="				; =head
     "\\$."				; $|
     "<<[a-zA-Z_'\"`]"			; <<FOO, <<'FOO'
     "||"
     "//"
     "&&"
     "[CBIXSLFZ]<\\(\\sw\\|\\s \\|\\s_\\|[\n]\\)*>" ; C<code like text>
     "-[a-zA-Z_0-9]+[ \t]*=>"		; -option => value
     ;; Unaddressed trouble spots: = -abc, f(56, -abc) --- specialcased below
     ;;"[*/+-|&<.]+="
     )
   "\\|")
  "If matches at the start of match found by `my-bad-c-style-regexp',
insertion of a whitespace will not help.")

(defvar found-bad)

(defun cperl-find-bad-style ()
  "Find places in the buffer where insertion of a whitespace may help.
Prompts user for insertion of spaces.
Currently it is tuned to C and Perl syntax."
  (interactive)
  (let (found-bad (p (point)))
    (setq last-nonmenu-event 13)	; To disable popup
    (goto-char (point-min))
    (map-y-or-n-p "Insert space here? "
		  (lambda (_) (insert " "))
		  'cperl-next-bad-style
		  '("location" "locations" "insert a space into")
		  `((?\C-r ,(lambda (_)
			      (let ((buffer-quit-function
				     #'exit-recursive-edit))
			        (message "Exit with Esc Esc")
			        (recursive-edit)
			        t))	; Consider acted upon
			   "edit, exit with Esc Esc")
		    (?e ,(lambda (_)
			   (let ((buffer-quit-function
				  #'exit-recursive-edit))
			     (message "Exit with Esc Esc")
			     (recursive-edit)
			     t))        ; Consider acted upon
			"edit, exit with Esc Esc"))
		  t)
    (if found-bad (goto-char found-bad)
      (goto-char p)
      (message "No appropriate place found"))))

(defun cperl-next-bad-style ()
  (let (p (not-found t) found)
    (while (and not-found
		(re-search-forward cperl-bad-style-regexp nil 'to-end))
      (setq p (point))
      (goto-char (match-beginning 0))
      (if (or
	   (looking-at cperl-not-bad-style-regexp)
	   ;; Check for a < -b and friends
	   (and (eq (following-char) ?\-)
		(save-excursion
		  (skip-chars-backward " \t\n")
		  (memq (preceding-char) '(?\= ?\> ?\< ?\, ?\( ?\[ ?\{))))
	   ;; Now check for syntax type
	   (save-match-data
	     (setq found (point))
	     (beginning-of-defun)
	     (let ((pps (parse-partial-sexp (point) found)))
	       (or (nth 3 pps) (nth 4 pps) (nth 5 pps)))))
	  (goto-char (match-end 0))
	(goto-char (1- p))
	(setq not-found nil
	      found-bad found)))
    (not not-found)))

\f
;;; Getting help
(defvar cperl-have-help-regexp
  ;;(concat "\\("
  (mapconcat
   #'identity
   '("[$@%*&][0-9a-zA-Z_:]+\\([ \t]*[[{]\\)?" ; Usual variable
     "[$@]\\^[a-zA-Z]"			; Special variable
     "[$@][^ \n\t]"			; Special variable
     "-[a-zA-Z]"			; File test
     "\\\\[a-zA-Z0]"			; Special chars
     "^=[a-z][a-zA-Z0-9_]*"		; POD sections
     "[-!&*+,./<=>?\\^|~]+"		; Operator
     "[a-zA-Z_0-9:]+"			; symbol or number
     "x="
     "#!")
   ;;"\\)\\|\\("
   "\\|")
  ;;"\\)"
  ;;)
  "Matches places in the buffer we can find help for.")

(defvar cperl-message-on-help-error t)
(defvar cperl-help-from-timer nil)

(defun cperl-word-at-point-hard ()
  ;; Does not save-excursion
  ;; Get to the something meaningful
  (or (eobp) (eolp) (forward-char 1))
  (re-search-backward "[-a-zA-Z0-9_:!&*+,./<=>?\\^|~$%@]"
		      (point-at-bol)
		      'to-beg)
  ;;  (cond
  ;;   ((or (eobp) (looking-at "[][ \t\n{}();,]")) ; Not at a symbol
  ;;    (skip-chars-backward " \n\t\r({[]});,")
  ;;    (or (bobp) (backward-char 1))))
  ;; Try to backtrace
  (cond
   ((looking-at "[a-zA-Z0-9_:]")	; symbol
    (skip-chars-backward "a-zA-Z0-9_:")
    (cond
     ((and (eq (preceding-char) ?^)	; $^I
	   (eq (char-after (- (point) 2)) ?\$))
      (forward-char -2))
     ((memq (preceding-char) (append "*$@%&\\" nil)) ; *glob
      (forward-char -1))
     ((and (eq (preceding-char) ?\=)
	   (eq (current-column) 1))
      (forward-char -1)))		; =head1
    (if (and (eq (preceding-char) ?\<)
	     (looking-at "\\$?[a-zA-Z0-9_:]+>")) ; <FH>
	(forward-char -1)))
   ((and (looking-at "=") (eq (preceding-char) ?x)) ; x=
    (forward-char -1))
   ((and (looking-at "\\^") (eq (preceding-char) ?\$)) ; $^I
    (forward-char -1))
   ((looking-at "[-!&*+,./<=>?\\^|~]")
    (skip-chars-backward "-!&*+,./<=>?\\^|~")
    (cond
     ((and (eq (preceding-char) ?\$)
	   (not (eq (char-after (- (point) 2)) ?\$))) ; $-
      (forward-char -1))
     ((and (eq (following-char) ?\>)
	   (string-match "[a-zA-Z0-9_]" (char-to-string (preceding-char)))
	   (save-excursion
	     (forward-sexp -1)
	     (and (eq (preceding-char) ?\<)
		  (looking-at "\\$?[a-zA-Z0-9_:]+>")))) ; <FH>
      (search-backward "<"))))
   ((and (eq (following-char) ?\$)
	 (eq (preceding-char) ?\<)
	 (looking-at "\\$?[a-zA-Z0-9_:]+>")) ; <$fh>
    (forward-char -1)))
  (if (looking-at cperl-have-help-regexp)
      (buffer-substring (match-beginning 0) (match-end 0))))

(defun cperl-get-help ()
  "Get one-line docs on the symbol at the point.
The data for these docs is a little bit obsolete and may be in fact longer
than a line.  Your contribution to update/shorten it is appreciated."
  (interactive)
  (save-match-data			; May be called "inside" query-replace
    (save-excursion
      (let ((word (cperl-word-at-point-hard)))
	(if word
	    (if (and cperl-help-from-timer ; Bail out if not in mainland
		     (not (string-match "^#!\\|\\\\\\|^=" word)) ; Show help even in comments/strings.
		     (or (memq (get-text-property (point) 'face)
			       '(font-lock-comment-face font-lock-string-face))
			 (memq (get-text-property (point) 'syntax-type)
			       '(pod here-doc format))))
		nil
	      (cperl-describe-perl-symbol word))
	  (if cperl-message-on-help-error
	      (message "Nothing found for %s..."
		       (buffer-substring (point) (min (+ 5 (point)) (point-max))))))))))

;;; Stolen from perl-descr.el by Johan Vromans:

(defvar cperl-doc-buffer " *perl-doc*"
  "Where the documentation can be found.")

(defun cperl-describe-perl-symbol (val)
  "Display the documentation of symbol at point, a Perl operator."
  (let ((enable-recursive-minibuffers t)
	regexp)
    (cond
     ((string-match "^[&*][a-zA-Z_]" val)
      (setq val (concat (substring val 0 1) "NAME")))
     ((string-match "^[$@]\\([a-zA-Z_:0-9]+\\)[ \t]*\\[" val)
      (setq val (concat "@" (substring val 1 (match-end 1)))))
     ((string-match "^[$@]\\([a-zA-Z_:0-9]+\\)[ \t]*{" val)
      (setq val (concat "%" (substring val 1 (match-end 1)))))
     ((and (string= val "x") (string-match "^x=" val))
      (setq val "x="))
     ((string-match "^\\$[\C-a-\C-z]" val)
      (setq val (concat "$^" (char-to-string (+ ?A -1 (aref val 1))))))
     ((string-match "^CORE::" val)
      (setq val "CORE::"))
     ((string-match "^SUPER::" val)
      (setq val "SUPER::"))
     ((and (string= "<" val) (string-match "^<\\$?[a-zA-Z0-9_:]+>" val))
      (setq val "<NAME>")))
    (setq regexp (concat "^"
			 "\\([^a-zA-Z0-9_:]+[ \t]+\\)?"
			 (regexp-quote val)
			 "\\([ \t([/]\\|$\\)"))

    ;; get the buffer with the documentation text
    (cperl-switch-to-doc-buffer)

    ;; lookup in the doc
    (goto-char (point-min))
    (let ((case-fold-search nil))
      (list
       (if (re-search-forward regexp (point-max) t)
	   (save-excursion
	     (beginning-of-line 1)
	     (let ((lnstart (point)))
	       (end-of-line)
	       (message "%s" (buffer-substring lnstart (point)))))
	 (if cperl-message-on-help-error
	     (message "No definition for %s" val)))))))

(defvar cperl-short-docs 'please-ignore-this-line
  ;; Perl4 version was written by Johan Vromans (jvromans@squirrel.nl)
  "# based on \\='@(#)@ perl-descr.el 1.9 - describe-perl-symbol\\=' [Perl 5]
...	Range (list context); flip/flop [no flop when flip] (scalar context).
! ...	Logical negation.
... != ...	Numeric inequality.
... !~ ...	Search pattern, substitution, or translation (negated).
$!	In numeric context: errno.  In a string context: error string.
$\"	The separator which joins elements of arrays interpolated in strings.
$#	The output format for printed numbers.  Default is %.15g or close.
$$	Process number of this script.  Changes in the fork()ed child process.
$%	The current page number of the currently selected output channel.

	The following variables are always local to the current block:

$1	Match of the 1st set of parentheses in the last match (auto-local).
$2	Match of the 2nd set of parentheses in the last match (auto-local).
$3	Match of the 3rd set of parentheses in the last match (auto-local).
$4	Match of the 4th set of parentheses in the last match (auto-local).
$5	Match of the 5th set of parentheses in the last match (auto-local).
$6	Match of the 6th set of parentheses in the last match (auto-local).
$7	Match of the 7th set of parentheses in the last match (auto-local).
$8	Match of the 8th set of parentheses in the last match (auto-local).
$9	Match of the 9th set of parentheses in the last match (auto-local).
$&	The string matched by the last pattern match (auto-local).
$\\='	The string after what was matched by the last match (auto-local).
$\\=`	The string before what was matched by the last match (auto-local).

$(	The real gid of this process.
$)	The effective gid of this process.
$*	Deprecated: Set to 1 to do multiline matching within a string.
$+	The last bracket matched by the last search pattern.
$,	The output field separator for the print operator.
$-	The number of lines left on the page.
$.	The current input line number of the last filehandle that was read.
$/	The input record separator, newline by default.
$0	Name of the file containing the current perl script (read/write).
$:     String may be broken after these characters to fill ^-lines in a format.
$;	Subscript separator for multi-dim array emulation.  Default \"\\034\".
$<	The real uid of this process.
$=	The page length of the current output channel.  Default is 60 lines.
$>	The effective uid of this process.
$?	The status returned by the last \\=`\\=`, pipe close or `system'.
$@	The perl error message from the last eval or do @var{EXPR} command.
$ARGV	The name of the current file used with <> .
$[	Deprecated: The index of the first element/char in an array/string.
$\\	The output record separator for the print operator.
$]	The perl version string as displayed with perl -v.
$^	The name of the current top-of-page format.
$^A     The current value of the write() accumulator for format() lines.
$^D	The value of the perl debug (-D) flags.
$^E     Information about the last system error other than that provided by $!.
$^F	The highest system file descriptor, ordinarily 2.
$^H     The current set of syntax checks enabled by `use strict'.
$^I	The value of the in-place edit extension (perl -i option).
$^L     What formats output to perform a formfeed.  Default is \\f.
$^M     A buffer for emergency memory allocation when running out of memory.
$^O     The operating system name under which this copy of Perl was built.
$^P	Internal debugging flag.
$^T	The time the script was started.  Used by -A/-M/-C file tests.
$^W	True if warnings are requested (perl -w flag).
$^X	The name under which perl was invoked (argv[0] in C-speech).
$_	The default input and pattern-searching space.
$|	Auto-flush after write/print on current output channel?  Default 0.
$~	The name of the current report format.
... % ...	Modulo division.
... %= ...	Modulo division assignment.
%ENV	Contains the current environment.
%INC	List of files that have been require-d or do-ne.
%SIG	Used to set signal handlers for various signals.
... & ...	Bitwise and.
... && ...	Logical and.
... &&= ...	Logical and assignment.
... &= ...	Bitwise and assignment.
... * ...	Multiplication.
... ** ...	Exponentiation.
*NAME	Glob: all objects referred by NAME.  *NAM1 = *NAM2 aliases NAM1 to NAM2.
&NAME(arg0, ...)	Subroutine call.  Arguments go to @_.
... + ...	Addition.		+EXPR	Makes EXPR into scalar context.
++	Auto-increment (magical on strings).	++EXPR	EXPR++
... += ...	Addition assignment.
,	Comma operator.
... - ...	Subtraction.
--	Auto-decrement (NOT magical on strings).	--EXPR	EXPR--
... -= ...	Subtraction assignment.
-A	Access time in days since script started.
-B	File is a non-text (binary) file.
-C	Inode change time in days since script started.
-M	Age in days since script started.
-O	File is owned by real uid.
-R	File is readable by real uid.
-S	File is a socket .
-T	File is a text file.
-W	File is writable by real uid.
-X	File is executable by real uid.
-b	File is a block special file.
-c	File is a character special file.
-d	File is a directory.
-e	File exists .
-f	File is a plain file.
-g	File has setgid bit set.
-k	File has sticky bit set.
-l	File is a symbolic link.
-o	File is owned by effective uid.
-p	File is a named pipe (FIFO).
-r	File is readable by effective uid.
-s	File has non-zero size.
-t	Tests if filehandle (STDIN by default) is opened to a tty.
-u	File has setuid bit set.
-w	File is writable by effective uid.
-x	File is executable by effective uid.
-z	File has zero size.
.	Concatenate strings.
..	Range (list context); flip/flop (scalar context) operator.
.=	Concatenate assignment strings
... / ...	Division.	/PATTERN/ioxsmg	Pattern match
... /= ...	Division assignment.
/PATTERN/ioxsmg	Pattern match.
... < ...    Numeric less than.	<pattern>	Glob.	See <NAME>, <> as well.
<NAME>	Reads line from filehandle NAME (a bareword or dollar-bareword).
<pattern>	Glob (Unless pattern is bareword/dollar-bareword - see <NAME>).
<>	Reads line from union of files in @ARGV (= command line) and STDIN.
... << ...	Bitwise shift left.	<<	start of HERE-DOCUMENT.
... <= ...	Numeric less than or equal to.
... <=> ...	Numeric compare.
... = ...	Assignment.
... == ...	Numeric equality.
... =~ ...	Search pattern, substitution, or translation
... ~~ ..       Smart match
... > ...	Numeric greater than.
... >= ...	Numeric greater than or equal to.
... >> ...	Bitwise shift right.
... >>= ...	Bitwise shift right assignment.
... ? ... : ...	Condition=if-then-else operator.
@ARGV	Command line arguments (not including the command name - see $0).
@INC	List of places to look for perl scripts during do/include/use.
@_    Parameter array for subroutines; result of split() unless in list context.
\\  Creates reference to what follows, like \\$var, or quotes non-\\w in strings.
\\0	Octal char, e.g. \\033.
\\E	Case modification terminator.  See \\Q, \\L, and \\U.
\\L	Lowercase until \\E .  See also \\l, lc.
\\U	Upcase until \\E .  See also \\u, uc.
\\Q	Quote metacharacters until \\E .  See also quotemeta.
\\a	Alarm character (octal 007).
\\b	Backspace character (octal 010).
\\c	Control character, e.g. \\c[ .
\\e	Escape character (octal 033).
\\f	Formfeed character (octal 014).
\\l	Lowercase the next character.  See also \\L and \\u, lcfirst.
\\n	Newline character (octal 012 on most systems).
\\r	Return character (octal 015 on most systems).
\\t	Tab character (octal 011).
\\u	Upcase the next character.  See also \\U and \\l, ucfirst.
\\x	Hex character, e.g. \\x1b.
... ^ ...	Bitwise exclusive or.
__END__	Ends program source.
__DATA__	Ends program source.
__FILE__	Current (source) filename.
__LINE__	Current line in current source.
__PACKAGE__	Current package.
__SUB__	Current sub.
ARGV	Default multi-file input filehandle.  <ARGV> is a synonym for <>.
ARGVOUT	Output filehandle with -i flag.
BEGIN { ... }	Immediately executed (during compilation) piece of code.
END { ... }	Pseudo-subroutine executed after the script finishes.
CHECK { ... }	Pseudo-subroutine executed after the script is compiled.
UNITCHECK { ... }
INIT { ... }	Pseudo-subroutine executed before the script starts running.
DATA	Input filehandle for what follows after __END__	or __DATA__.
accept(NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET)
alarm(SECONDS)
atan2(X,Y)
bind(SOCKET,NAME)
binmode(FILEHANDLE)
break	Break out of a given/when statement
caller[(LEVEL)]
chdir(EXPR)
chmod(LIST)
chop[(LIST|VAR)]
chown(LIST)
chroot(FILENAME)
close(FILEHANDLE)
closedir(DIRHANDLE)
... cmp ...	String compare.
connect(SOCKET,NAME)
continue of { block } continue { block }.  Is executed after `next' or at end.
cos(EXPR)
crypt(PLAINTEXT,SALT)
dbmclose(%HASH)
dbmopen(%HASH,DBNAME,MODE)
default { ... } default case for given/when block
defined(EXPR)
delete($HASH{KEY})
die(LIST)
do { ... }|SUBR while|until EXPR	executes at least once
do(EXPR|SUBR([LIST]))	(with while|until executes at least once)
dump LABEL
each(%HASH)
endgrent
endhostent
endnetent
endprotoent
endpwent
endservent
eof[([FILEHANDLE])]
... eq ...	String equality.
eval(EXPR) or eval { BLOCK }
evalbytes   See eval.
exec([TRUENAME] ARGV0, ARGVs)     or     exec(SHELL_COMMAND_LINE)
exit(EXPR)
exp(EXPR)
fcntl(FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR)
fileno(FILEHANDLE)
flock(FILEHANDLE,OPERATION)
for (EXPR;EXPR;EXPR) { ... }
foreach [VAR] (@ARRAY) { ... }
fork
... ge ...	String greater than or equal.
getc[(FILEHANDLE)]
getgrent
getgrgid(GID)
getgrnam(NAME)
gethostbyaddr(ADDR,ADDRTYPE)
gethostbyname(NAME)
gethostent
getlogin
getnetbyaddr(ADDR,ADDRTYPE)
getnetbyname(NAME)
getnetent
getpeername(SOCKET)
getpgrp(PID)
getppid
getpriority(WHICH,WHO)
getprotobyname(NAME)
getprotobynumber(NUMBER)
getprotoent
getpwent
getpwnam(NAME)
getpwuid(UID)
getservbyname(NAME,PROTO)
getservbyport(PORT,PROTO)
getservent
getsockname(SOCKET)
getsockopt(SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME)
given (EXPR) { [ when (EXPR) { ... } ]+ [ default { ... } ]? }
gmtime(EXPR)
goto LABEL
... gt ...	String greater than.
hex(EXPR)
if (EXPR) { ... } [ elsif (EXPR) { ... } ... ] [ else { ... } ] or EXPR if EXPR
index(STR,SUBSTR[,OFFSET])
int(EXPR)
ioctl(FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR)
join(EXPR,LIST)
keys(%HASH)
kill(LIST)
last [LABEL]
... le ...	String less than or equal.
length(EXPR)
link(OLDFILE,NEWFILE)
listen(SOCKET,QUEUESIZE)
local(LIST)
localtime(EXPR)
log(EXPR)
lstat(EXPR|FILEHANDLE|VAR)
... lt ...	String less than.
m/PATTERN/iogsmx
mkdir(FILENAME,MODE)
msgctl(ID,CMD,ARG)
msgget(KEY,FLAGS)
msgrcv(ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE.FLAGS)
msgsnd(ID,MSG,FLAGS)
my VAR or my (VAR1,...)	Introduces a lexical variable ($VAR, @ARR, or %HASH).
our VAR or our (VAR1,...) Lexically enable a global variable ($V, @A, or %H).
... ne ...	String inequality.
next [LABEL]
oct(EXPR)
open(FILEHANDLE[,EXPR])
opendir(DIRHANDLE,EXPR)
ord(EXPR)	ASCII value of the first char of the string.
pack(TEMPLATE,LIST)
package NAME	Introduces package context.
pipe(READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE)	Create a pair of filehandles on ends of a pipe.
pop(ARRAY)
print [FILEHANDLE] [(LIST)]
printf [FILEHANDLE] (FORMAT,LIST)
push(ARRAY,LIST)
q/STRING/	Synonym for \\='STRING\\='
qq/STRING/	Synonym for \"STRING\"
qx/STRING/	Synonym for \\=`STRING\\=`
rand[(EXPR)]
read(FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH[,OFFSET])
readdir(DIRHANDLE)
readlink(EXPR)
recv(SOCKET,SCALAR,LEN,FLAGS)
redo [LABEL]
rename(OLDNAME,NEWNAME)
require [FILENAME | PERL_VERSION]
reset[(EXPR)]
return(LIST)
reverse(LIST)
rewinddir(DIRHANDLE)
rindex(STR,SUBSTR[,OFFSET])
rmdir(FILENAME)
s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/gieoxsm
say [FILEHANDLE] [(LIST)]
scalar(EXPR)
seek(FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE)
seekdir(DIRHANDLE,POS)
select(FILEHANDLE | RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT)
semctl(ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG)
semget(KEY,NSEMS,SIZE,FLAGS)
semop(KEY,...)
send(SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS[,TO])
setgrent
sethostent(STAYOPEN)
setnetent(STAYOPEN)
setpgrp(PID,PGRP)
setpriority(WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY)
setprotoent(STAYOPEN)
setpwent
setservent(STAYOPEN)
setsockopt(SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL)
shift[(ARRAY)]
shmctl(ID,CMD,ARG)
shmget(KEY,SIZE,FLAGS)
shmread(ID,VAR,POS,SIZE)
shmwrite(ID,STRING,POS,SIZE)
shutdown(SOCKET,HOW)
sin(EXPR)
sleep[(EXPR)]
socket(SOCKET,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL)
socketpair(SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL)
sort [SUBROUTINE] (LIST)
splice(ARRAY,OFFSET[,LENGTH[,LIST]])
split[(/PATTERN/[,EXPR[,LIMIT]])]
sprintf(FORMAT,LIST)
sqrt(EXPR)
srand(EXPR)
stat(EXPR|FILEHANDLE|VAR)
state VAR or state (VAR1,...)	Introduces a static lexical variable
study[(SCALAR)]
sub [NAME [(format)]] { BODY }	sub NAME [(format)];	sub [(format)] {...}
substr(EXPR,OFFSET[,LEN])
symlink(OLDFILE,NEWFILE)
syscall(LIST)
sysread(FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH[,OFFSET])
system([TRUENAME] ARGV0 [,ARGV])     or     system(SHELL_COMMAND_LINE)
syswrite(FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH[,OFFSET])
tell[(FILEHANDLE)]
telldir(DIRHANDLE)
time
times
tr/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds
truncate(FILE|EXPR,LENGTH)
umask[(EXPR)]
undef[(EXPR)]
unless (EXPR) { ... } [ else { ... } ] or EXPR unless EXPR
unlink(LIST)
unpack(TEMPLATE,EXPR)
unshift(ARRAY,LIST)
until (EXPR) { ... }					EXPR until EXPR
utime(LIST)
values(%HASH)
vec(EXPR,OFFSET,BITS)
wait
waitpid(PID,FLAGS)
wantarray	Returns true if the sub/eval is called in list context.
warn(LIST)
while  (EXPR) { ... }					EXPR while EXPR
write[(EXPR|FILEHANDLE)]
... x ...	Repeat string or array.
x= ...	Repetition assignment.
y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/
... | ...	Bitwise or.
... || ...	Logical or.
... // ...      Defined-or.
~ ...		Unary bitwise complement.
#!	OS interpreter indicator.  If contains `perl', used for options, and -x.
AUTOLOAD {...}	Shorthand for `sub AUTOLOAD {...}'.
CORE::		Prefix to access builtin function if imported sub obscures it.
SUPER::		Prefix to lookup for a method in @ISA classes.
DESTROY		Shorthand for `sub DESTROY {...}'.
... EQ ...	Obsolete synonym of `eq'.
... GE ...	Obsolete synonym of `ge'.
... GT ...	Obsolete synonym of `gt'.
... LE ...	Obsolete synonym of `le'.
... LT ...	Obsolete synonym of `lt'.
... NE ...	Obsolete synonym of `ne'.
abs [ EXPR ]	absolute value
... and ...		Low-precedence synonym for &&.
bless REFERENCE [, PACKAGE]	Makes reference into an object of a package.
chomp [LIST]	Strips $/ off LIST/$_.  Returns count.  Special if $/ eq \\='\\='!
chr		Converts a number to char with the same ordinal.
else		Part of if/unless {BLOCK} elsif {BLOCK} else {BLOCK}.
elsif		Part of if/unless {BLOCK} elsif {BLOCK} else {BLOCK}.
exists $HASH{KEY}	True if the key exists.
fc EXPR    Returns the casefolded version of EXPR.
format [NAME] =	 Start of output format.  Ended by a single dot (.) on a line.
formline PICTURE, LIST	Backdoor into \"format\" processing.
glob EXPR	Synonym of <EXPR>.
lc [ EXPR ]	Returns lowercased EXPR.
lcfirst [ EXPR ]	Returns EXPR with lower-cased first letter.
grep EXPR,LIST  or grep {BLOCK} LIST	Filters LIST via EXPR/BLOCK.
map EXPR, LIST	or map {BLOCK} LIST	Applies EXPR/BLOCK to elts of LIST.
no PACKAGE [SYMBOL1, ...]  Partial reverse for `use'.  Runs `unimport' method.
not ...		Low-precedence synonym for ! - negation.
... or ...		Low-precedence synonym for ||.
pos STRING    Set/Get end-position of the last match over this string, see \\G.
prototype FUNC   Returns the prototype of a function as a string, or undef.
quotemeta [ EXPR ]	Quote regexp metacharacters.
qw/WORD1 .../		Synonym of split(\\='\\=', \\='WORD1 ...\\=')
readline FH	Synonym of <FH>.
readpipe CMD	Synonym of \\=`CMD\\=`.
ref [ EXPR ]	Type of EXPR when dereferenced.
sysopen FH, FILENAME, MODE [, PERM]	(MODE is numeric, see Fcntl.)
tie VAR, PACKAGE, LIST	Hide an object behind a simple Perl variable.
tied		Returns internal object for a tied data.
uc [ EXPR ]	Returns upcased EXPR.
ucfirst [ EXPR ]	Returns EXPR with upcased first letter.
untie VAR	Unlink an object from a simple Perl variable.
use PACKAGE [SYMBOL1, ...]  Compile-time `require' with consequent `import'.
... xor ...		Low-precedence synonym for exclusive or.
prototype \\&SUB	Returns prototype of the function given a reference.
=head1		Top-level heading.
=head2		Second-level heading.
=head3		Third-level heading.
=head4		Fourth-level heading.
=over [ NUMBER ]	Start list.
=item [ TITLE ]		Start new item in the list.
=back		End list.
=cut		Switch from POD to Perl.
=pod		Switch from Perl to POD.
=begin formatname	Start directly formatted region.
=end formatname	End directly formatted region.
=for formatname text	Paragraph in special format.
=encoding encodingname	Encoding of the document.
")

(defun cperl-switch-to-doc-buffer (&optional interactive)
  "Go to the perl documentation buffer and insert the documentation."
  (interactive "p")
  (let ((buf (get-buffer-create cperl-doc-buffer)))
    (if interactive
	(switch-to-buffer-other-window buf)
      (set-buffer buf))
    (if (= (buffer-size) 0)
	(progn
	  (insert (documentation-property 'cperl-short-docs
					  'variable-documentation))
	  (setq buffer-read-only t)))))

(defun cperl-beautify-regexp-piece (b e embed level)
  ;; b is before the starting delimiter, e before the ending
  ;; e should be a marker, may be changed, but remains "correct".
  ;; EMBED is nil if we process the whole REx.
  ;; The REx is guaranteed to have //x
  ;; LEVEL shows how many levels deep to go
  ;; position at enter and at leave is not defined
  (let (s c tmp (m (make-marker)) (m1 (make-marker)) c1 spaces inline pos)
    (if embed
	(progn
	  (goto-char b)
	  (setq c (if (eq embed t) (current-indentation) (current-column)))
	  (cond ((looking-at "(\\?\\\\#") ; (?#) wrongly commented when //x-ing
		 (forward-char 2)
		 (delete-char 1)
		 (forward-char 1))
		((looking-at "(\\?[^a-zA-Z]")
		 (forward-char 3))
		((looking-at "(\\?")	; (?i)
		 (forward-char 2))
		(t
		 (forward-char 1))))
      (goto-char (1+ b))
      (setq c (1- (current-column))))
    (setq c1 (+ c (or cperl-regexp-indent-step cperl-indent-level)))
    (or (looking-at "[ \t]*[\n#]")
	(progn
	  (insert "\n")))
    (goto-char e)
    (beginning-of-line)
    (if (re-search-forward "[^ \t]" e t)
	(progn			       ; Something before the ending delimiter
	  (goto-char e)
	  (delete-horizontal-space)
	  (insert "\n")
	  (cperl-make-indent c)
	  (set-marker e (point))))
    (goto-char b)
    (end-of-line 2)
    (while (< (point) (marker-position e))
      (beginning-of-line)
      (setq s (point)
	    inline t)
      (skip-chars-forward " \t")
      (delete-region s (point))
      (cperl-make-indent c1)
      (while (and
	      inline
	      (looking-at
	       (concat "\\([a-zA-Z0-9]+[^*+{?]\\)" ; 1 word
		       "\\|"		; Embedded variable
		       "\\$\\([a-zA-Z0-9_]+\\([[{]\\)?\\|[^\n \t)|]\\)" ; 2 3
		       "\\|"		; $ ^
		       "[$^]"
		       "\\|"		; simple-code simple-code*?
		       "\\(\\\\.\\|[^][()#|*+?$^\n]\\)\\([*+{?]\\??\\)?" ; 4 5
		       "\\|"		; Class
		       "\\(\\[\\)"	; 6
		       "\\|"		; Grouping
		       "\\((\\(\\?\\)?\\)" ; 7 8
		       "\\|"		; |
		       "\\(|\\)")))	; 9
	(goto-char (match-end 0))
	(setq spaces t)
	(cond ((match-beginning 1)	; Alphanum word + junk
	       (forward-char -1))
	      ((or (match-beginning 3)	; $ab[12]
		   (and (match-beginning 5) ; X* X+ X{2,3}
			(eq (preceding-char) ?\{)))
	       (forward-char -1)
	       (forward-sexp 1))
	      ((and			; [], already syntaxified
		(match-beginning 6)
		cperl-regexp-scan
		cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property)
	       (forward-char -1)
	       (forward-sexp 1)
	       (or (eq (preceding-char) ?\])
		   (error "[]-group not terminated"))
	       (re-search-forward
		"\\=\\([*+?]\\|{[0-9]+\\(,[0-9]*\\)?}\\)\\??" e t))
	      ((match-beginning 6)	; []
	       (setq tmp (point))
	       (if (looking-at "\\^?\\]")
		   (goto-char (match-end 0)))
	       ;; XXXX POSIX classes?!
	       (while (and (not pos)
			   (re-search-forward "\\[:\\|\\]" e t))
		 (if (eq (preceding-char) ?:)
		     (or (re-search-forward ":\\]" e t)
			 (error "[:POSIX:]-group in []-group not terminated"))
		   (setq pos t)))
	       (or (eq (preceding-char) ?\])
		   (error "[]-group not terminated"))
	       (re-search-forward
		"\\=\\([*+?]\\|{[0-9]+\\(,[0-9]*\\)?}\\)\\??" e t))
	      ((match-beginning 7)	; ()
	       (goto-char (match-beginning 0))
	       (setq pos (current-column))
	       (or (eq pos c1)
		   (progn
		     (delete-horizontal-space)
		     (insert "\n")
		     (cperl-make-indent c1)))
	       (setq tmp (point))
	       (forward-sexp 1)
	       ;;	       (or (forward-sexp 1)
	       ;;		   (progn
	       ;;		     (goto-char tmp)
	       ;;		     (error "()-group not terminated")))
	       (set-marker m (1- (point)))
	       (set-marker m1 (point))
	       (if (= level 1)
		   (if (progn		; indent rigidly if multiline
			 ;; In fact does not make a lot of sense, since
			 ;; the starting position can be already lost due
			 ;; to insertion of "\n" and " "
			 (goto-char tmp)
			 (search-forward "\n" m1 t))
		       (indent-rigidly (point) m1 (- c1 pos)))
		 (setq level (1- level))
		 (cond
		  ((not (match-beginning 8))
		   (cperl-beautify-regexp-piece tmp m t level))
		  ((eq (char-after (+ 2 tmp)) ?\{) ; Code
		   t)
		  ((eq (char-after (+ 2 tmp)) ?\() ; Conditional
		   (goto-char (+ 2 tmp))
		   (forward-sexp 1)
		   (cperl-beautify-regexp-piece (point) m t level))
		  ((eq (char-after (+ 2 tmp)) ?<) ; Lookbehind
		   (goto-char (+ 3 tmp))
		   (cperl-beautify-regexp-piece (point) m t level))
		  (t
		   (cperl-beautify-regexp-piece tmp m t level))))
	       (goto-char m1)
	       (cond ((looking-at "[*+?]\\??")
		      (goto-char (match-end 0)))
		     ((eq (following-char) ?\{)
		      (forward-sexp 1)
		      (if (eq (following-char) ?\?)
			  (forward-char))))
	       (skip-chars-forward " \t")
	       (setq spaces nil)
	       (if (looking-at "[#\n]")
		   (progn
		     (or (eolp) (indent-for-comment))
		     (beginning-of-line 2))
		 (delete-horizontal-space)
		 (insert "\n"))
	       (end-of-line)
	       (setq inline nil))
	      ((match-beginning 9)	; |
	       (forward-char -1)
	       (setq tmp (point))
	       (beginning-of-line)
	       (if (re-search-forward "[^ \t]" tmp t)
		   (progn
		     (goto-char tmp)
		     (delete-horizontal-space)
		     (insert "\n"))
		 ;; first at line
		 (delete-region (point) tmp))
	       (cperl-make-indent c)
	       (forward-char 1)
	       (skip-chars-forward " \t")
	       (setq spaces nil)
	       (if (looking-at "[#\n]")
		   (beginning-of-line 2)
		 (delete-horizontal-space)
		 (insert "\n"))
	       (end-of-line)
	       (setq inline nil)))
	(or (looking-at "[ \t\n]")
	    (not spaces)
	    (insert " "))
	(skip-chars-forward " \t"))
      (or (looking-at "[#\n]")
	  (error "Unknown code `%s' in a regexp"
		 (buffer-substring (point) (1+ (point)))))
      (and inline (end-of-line 2)))
    ;; Special-case the last line of group
    (if (and (>= (point) (marker-position e))
	     (/= (current-indentation) c))
	(progn
	  (beginning-of-line)
	  (cperl-make-indent c)))))

(defun cperl-make-regexp-x ()
  ;; Returns position of the start
  ;; XXX this is called too often!  Need to cache the result!
  (save-excursion
    (or cperl-use-syntax-table-text-property
	(error "I need to have a regexp marked!"))
    ;; Find the start
    (if (looking-at "\\s|")
	nil				; good already
      (if (or (looking-at "\\([smy]\\|qr\\)\\s|")
	      (and (eq (preceding-char) ?q)
		   (looking-at "\\(r\\)\\s|")))
	  (goto-char (match-end 1))
	(re-search-backward "\\s|")))	; Assume it is scanned already.
    ;;(forward-char 1)
    (let ((b (point)) (e (make-marker)) have-x delim
	  (sub-p (eq (preceding-char) ?s)))
      (forward-sexp 1)
      (set-marker e (1- (point)))
      (setq delim (preceding-char))
      (if (and sub-p (eq delim (char-after (- (point) 2))))
	  (error "Possible s/blah// - do not know how to deal with"))
      (if sub-p (forward-sexp 1))
      (if (looking-at "\\sw*x")
	  (setq have-x t)
	(insert "x"))
      ;; Protect fragile " ", "#"
      (if have-x nil
	(goto-char (1+ b))
	(while (re-search-forward "\\(\\=\\|[^\\]\\)\\(\\\\\\\\\\)*[ \t\n#]" e t) ; Need to include (?#) too?
	  (forward-char -1)
	  (insert "\\")
	  (forward-char 1)))
      b)))

(defun cperl-beautify-regexp (&optional deep)
  "Do it.  (Experimental, may change semantics, recheck the result.)
We suppose that the regexp is scanned already."
  (interactive "P")
  (setq deep (if deep (prefix-numeric-value deep) -1))
  (save-excursion
    (goto-char (cperl-make-regexp-x))
    (let ((b (point)) (e (make-marker)))
      (forward-sexp 1)
      (set-marker e (1- (point)))
      (cperl-beautify-regexp-piece b e nil deep))))

(defun cperl-regext-to-level-start ()
  "Goto start of an enclosing group in regexp.
We suppose that the regexp is scanned already."
  (interactive)
  (let ((limit (cperl-make-regexp-x)) done)
    (while (not done)
      (or (eq (following-char) ?\()
	  (search-backward "(" (1+ limit) t)
	  (error "Cannot find `(' which starts a group"))
      (setq done
	    (save-excursion
	      (skip-chars-backward "\\\\")
	      (looking-at "\\(\\\\\\\\\\)*(")))
      (or done (forward-char -1)))))

(defun cperl-contract-level ()
  "Find an enclosing group in regexp and contract it.
\(Experimental, may change semantics, recheck the result.)
We suppose that the regexp is scanned already."
  (interactive)
  ;; (save-excursion		; Can't, breaks `cperl-contract-levels'
  (cperl-regext-to-level-start)
  (let ((b (point)) (e (make-marker)) c)
    (forward-sexp 1)
    (set-marker e (1- (point)))
    (goto-char b)
    (while (re-search-forward "\\(#\\)\\|\n" e 'to-end)
      (cond
       ((match-beginning 1)		; #-comment
	(or c (setq c (current-indentation)))
	(beginning-of-line 2)		; Skip
	(cperl-make-indent c))
       (t
	(delete-char -1)
	(just-one-space))))))

(defun cperl-contract-levels ()
  "Find an enclosing group in regexp and contract all the kids.
\(Experimental, may change semantics, recheck the result.)
We suppose that the regexp is scanned already."
  (interactive)
  (save-excursion
    (condition-case nil
	(cperl-regext-to-level-start)
      (error				; We are outside outermost group
       (goto-char (cperl-make-regexp-x))))
    (let ((b (point)) (e (make-marker)))
      (forward-sexp 1)
      (set-marker e (1- (point)))
      (goto-char (1+ b))
      (while (re-search-forward "\\(\\\\\\\\\\)\\|(" e t)
	(cond
	 ((match-beginning 1)		; Skip
	  nil)
	 (t				; Group
	  (cperl-contract-level)))))))

(defun cperl-beautify-level (&optional deep)
  "Find an enclosing group in regexp and beautify it.
\(Experimental, may change semantics, recheck the result.)
We suppose that the regexp is scanned already."
  (interactive "P")
  (setq deep (if deep (prefix-numeric-value deep) -1))
  (save-excursion
    (cperl-regext-to-level-start)
    (let ((b (point)) (e (make-marker)))
      (forward-sexp 1)
      (set-marker e (1- (point)))
      (cperl-beautify-regexp-piece b e 'level deep))))

(defun cperl-invert-if-unless-modifiers ()
  "Change `B if A;' into `if (A) {B}' etc if possible.
\(Unfinished.)"
  (interactive)
  (let (A B pre-B post-B pre-if post-if pre-A post-A if-string
	  (w-rex "\\<\\(if\\|unless\\|while\\|until\\|for\\|foreach\\)\\>"))
    (and (= (char-syntax (preceding-char)) ?w)
	 (forward-sexp -1))
    (setq pre-if (point))
    (cperl-backward-to-start-of-expr)
    (setq pre-B (point))
    (forward-sexp 1)		; otherwise forward-to-end-of-expr is NOP
    (cperl-forward-to-end-of-expr)
    (setq post-A (point))
    (goto-char pre-if)
    (or (looking-at w-rex)
	;; Find the position
	(progn (goto-char post-A)
	       (while (and
		       (not (looking-at w-rex))
		       (> (point) pre-B))
		 (forward-sexp -1))
	       (setq pre-if (point))))
    (or (looking-at w-rex)
	(error "Can't find `if', `unless', `while', `until', `for' or `foreach'"))
    ;; 1 B 2 ... 3 B-com ... 4 if 5 ... if-com 6 ... 7 A 8
    (setq if-string (buffer-substring (match-beginning 0) (match-end 0)))
    ;; First, simple part: find code boundaries
    (forward-sexp 1)
    (setq post-if (point))
    (forward-sexp -2)
    (forward-sexp 1)
    (setq post-B (point))
    (cperl-backward-to-start-of-expr)
    (setq pre-B (point))
    (setq B (buffer-substring pre-B post-B))
    (goto-char pre-if)
    (forward-sexp 2)
    (forward-sexp -1)
    ;; May be after $, @, $# etc of a variable
    (skip-chars-backward "$@%#")
    (setq pre-A (point))
    (cperl-forward-to-end-of-expr)
    (setq post-A (point))
    (setq A (buffer-substring pre-A post-A))
    ;; Now modify (from end, to not break the stuff)
    (skip-chars-forward " \t;")
    (delete-region pre-A (point))	; we move to pre-A
    (insert "\n" B ";\n}")
    (and (looking-at "[ \t]*#") (cperl-indent-for-comment))
    (delete-region pre-if post-if)
    (delete-region pre-B post-B)
    (goto-char pre-B)
    (insert if-string " (" A ") {")
    (setq post-B (point))
    (if (looking-at "[ \t]+$")
	(delete-horizontal-space)
      (if (looking-at "[ \t]*#")
	  (cperl-indent-for-comment)
	(just-one-space)))
    (forward-line 1)